The Colours of London

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Media Censorship

facts about the (2)

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Where I Come From: The Graphic Novel

Where I Come From Graphic Novel – Click to download

Add comment Posted in  Uncategorized December 11, 2015

Spice Trade


Causes and Effects of Europe and the Spice Trade

A major cause of the European entry into Asia for spices was the power granted to the Dutch East India Company. As shown on the Charter of Privileges and Exemptions the Dutch West India company, the Dutch government has given them the power to “build any forts and fortifications there, to appoint and discharge Governors, people for war, and officers of justice, and other public officers”. This excerpt shows the power that the government gave them, allowing them to raise an army, build forts, and appoint people of their choosing. Essentially, this granted the Dutch West India Company the powers of a country, except without the responsibilities of looking after anyone but themselves. The map below shows the route taken by the Europeans and the distances that they needed to go in order to get spices. Because of the long distances, and the amount of trust they needed in others, such as the Arabs and the Asians, the Europeans decided it would be easier to just control the islands directly. Mainly because of these two reasons, the Europeans felt that they needed to go into Asia and start colonizing.


The effect of European nations colonizing South East Asia was that the Europeans controlled much of the spice trade, and the Asians were often treated almost as slave labour. Observations made by a British merchant, George Early, at Batavia in 1832 show the amount of control by the Europeans. He says “Of the three articles most in demand for European consumption, coffee, pepper, and sugar, the two former are entirely monopolized by the government” and “This system has been found so oppressive, that frequently the natives, driven to desperation, destroy their own plantations.” When the Europeans came into Southeast Asia, it is clear that they put profit first and the welfare of the natives second, and that the natives disliked the influence of Europe. In 1656, the Dutch East India Company fought a battle against Portugal off the coast of Malabar, as shown by the painting of the victory. This proves the fighting between the Europeans, not just in Europe, but also in the Spice Islands. It also shows that the Spice Islands were important to the Europeans. In the painting, the town of Malabar looks like a European town, because of the introduction of European ideas and culture into Asia. The effect of European control of the Spice Islands was the monopolization of trade, the oppression of the natives, and the introduction of European life into Southeast Asia.



Dutch West India Charter

Batavia observations:

J. M. Gullick, Adventures and Encounters: Europeans in South-East Asia, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995.


World Oldest Share

Dutch Naval Battle Painting


Map of European Spice Trade:

“(Brief) History of European – Asian Trade.” European Exploration. Web. 29 Aug. 2015.



Add comment Posted in  Asian Studies September 1, 2015

Consequences of encounters

Many people wonder what would happen if one small event had not occurred. In Blood Crows, by Simon Scarrow, such an event does occur. Encountering Maridius causes the protagonist Cato to make future decisions, such as having to take him prisoner, having to fend off a siege, and having to ultimately kill him. That incident has a large impact on the rest of the story.

When raiding a village in Britannia, officer Cato found a warrior who was the brother of the enemy tribes leader. The way that tribes interacted was similar to the way that  “Amongst the prisoners was the blond man, conspicuous by his stature and the lightness of his hair compared to the mostly dark-haired Silurians.” (Page 211, Scarrow). By seeing this warrior Cato has to make a decision. Does he capture him as a valuable hostage, or does he kill him to reduce a major threat. In choosing to take him hostage, Cato changes the course of the rest of the book, introducing a new enemy, and causing several old enemies to return.

After the leader of the enemy tribe finds out that his brother has been captured, he sends out an army to get him back. “And revealing the dense ranks of warriors stretching across the floor of the valley where they stood in silence, by the thousand.” (Page 231). Because of the capturing of his brother, and the subsequent army, Cato is forced to make numerous decisions in order to save his troops life. If this event did not happen, then the rest of the book would have lacked the suspense that it has. Because of the incident where he saw Maridius, the rest of the book has an enemy and a plot to make it interesting. Prior to the incident, none of the events that happened would have happened.

Finally, needing a response to the actions of the enemy, Maridius is killed. “With all the brute strength he could muster, Macro rammed his sword up into the prisoners skull.” (Page 337). This event starts and is the climax of the story, leading Cato to make choices that decide how his life will play out. When this event happens, the amount of people that are changed by the way that this pans out increases exponentially. All of this is the result of the encountering of Maridius. That event had a change on how the rest of the story panned out.

Ultimately, encountering Maridius stands as the most important event of the book, because it causes the protagonist to make decisions that make the rising action and lead into the climax. Cato has to repel a siege, kill somebody, and take Maridius prisoner. Because of one small event, the rest of the book is massively changed.

Add comment Posted in  Humanities  Tagged:  , , , , April 28, 2015

Roman fog effects

Surrounded by fog, in times of war, distanced from others. In a dark, unclear, mysterious world, in the book The Blood Crows by Simon Scarrow, the setting of the book changes the way people feel about things and act about things. The mood of the story is changed by the fog, the war they are in, and the distance from other people. Without this setting, the mood would be non-existent.

Set in Roman age Britain, two Roman military officers and their troops travel to a distant fort far from the rest of the Roman army.
“Cato recalled that the mists and fogs of Britannia could wreath the landscape for days at a time, playing havoc with the imagination of some of the men … it left Cato feeling tense and anxious.” (Scarrow, Page 69). All of the people, because of the fog, began to think of all of the possible dangers around them. This adds to the mysterious nature of the book, as every sight and sound is treated with a fresh wave of wondering and every possibility flits through the mind.

At this time, Rome was at war with Britannia (Britain), and with the officers deep in enemy lines, they knew that attack could come at any second. Because of this, nobody felt safe, and the whole fort was almost going crazy. “I don’t know what they’ve told you about what’s been going on at Bruccium, sir, but it’s never been quite right to my mind, since the fort was built.” (Page 138)
Because of this, everybody is worried about how they could be attacked at any second by a bloodthirsty mob. The vague veneer of happiness and hope of the first pages is ripped away by as the hopelessness of the situation shines through by the lack of any semblance of safety.

The fort that they were in was extremely far away from the rest of the army’s help.
“We’re well over the frontier of the province. Far enough from any help if we get into trouble. And we are in trouble.” (Page 217) Because of this, people began to imagine many horrible things that they would be powerless to stop, adding to the feel of mysteriousness and darkness. With people on hand, the chances of them dying were close to nothing. Without the lack of people, the book would have had no mystery, no suspense, no darkness.

Simon Scarrow, with the use of the time and place of this story, changes the way readers feel about the book. The smog outside the fort, the political situation of the times, and the remote location in regards to the amount of people all make The Blood Crows a book where the true happenings are hard to discern.

Add comment Posted in  Humanities  Tagged:  , , , , , , April 14, 2015

Polymer Journal

Day 1
March 31st, 2015
Today was the first day of our new polymer project. In this project we have to create an original polymer and advertise it. Using the materials PVA, cornstarch, glue, guar gum, and borax, we had to think of a material that had a practical use in daily life. After brainstorming several ways to make a material, we started experimenting with the materials to see which ideas could be done. With the earlier experiments that we did in class to make boogers, goobers, and super slime, we could figure out how much of each material we had to use and what materials we had to use.
After experimenting with many different materials and trying many ideas, it turned out that making polymers was harder that it seemed. Most of the things that were made did not have all of the properties that we were looking for, but some other things turned out better than expected as well. Making polymers is definitely not easy.


Day 2
April 7, 2015

Today in class, we started our work on making a polymer. We started with thinking about new ideas. Following that, we took the materials we thought could create some of the properties we wanted to produce. For example, when we wanted to make something sticky, we added more glue. In the end, after trying out many different chemical combinations, we came up with a polymer that we felt was good. It had many different materials, as it contained glue, borax solution, PVA, guar gum, water, and food coloring. To finalize the amount of each material we needed, we added more of each material depending on the properties that it had. Because of this, it took quite a long time to get the end result that we wanted. Overall, I feel that even though the polymer could be improved, the polymer that we have now is also very interesting.


Day 3
April 9th, 2015

Today was the last day we had to finish the polymer that we were making. In this class, we refined the polymer that we made last class, mainly adding colour to the polymer. We also started working on the finalized video for our presentation. In this class, we did not start any new experiments, and because of that, it felt more focused, but, by the end, it also felt like we had accomplished slightly more.
Overall, I feel like during this science class, our group spaced our work out evenly, as well as staying on task most of the time, and completed all that we could do. However, sometimes it also felt slightly rushed when we tried to finish something, and it also feels like the polymer that we made could still be improved a lot.


Day 4
April 13th.2015
Today was the final day of the polymer project, and we spent most of this class presenting the polymer and the uses of the polymer to the rest of the class in a video format. It was supposed to convince the ‘Dream On’ company to help make the product.
After spending most of our time watching other groups, I realized that many other groups had many different ideas. However, some of the groups ideas were also very similar. Most of the groups had a polymer that was bouncy, malleable, and looked the same. Overall, I feel that while there could have been slightly more diversity for the class, it was still very interesting to see other peoples polymers and videos, as well as also being able to compare them to other I think that both our polymer and our video were very different from the norm of the class.


Photo on 4-9-15 at 9.01 AM

Add comment Posted in  Science  Tagged:  April 6, 2015

Cultural Un-Barriers Reflection

Portrait Stamp and Background Reflection


To make my artwork, I had to do two main things. I had to make the background and I had to make my portrait. To make my background, I had to get a sheet of paper, pick two colors, and use different materials to cover it. Then I had to make a stamp to print onto the paper that symbolized part of me. The stamp was stamped onto the colored paper, and that was my background. To make my portrait, I had to choose a photo of myself, and use Adobe Illustrator to make a digital drawing of it. This was then printed out to put onto the background. These were the steps I used to make the artwork.

My stamp design represents how I like to read. This is shown by the book in the background of the stamp. The symbol on top of the book is shaped like a bat to show how I like the superhero and fantasy genre, along with other things on the stamp that represent different genres. The colors that I used for my background were red and orange, while the stamp colors were green and blue to stand out against them.

This aspect of cultural identity is significant to who I am as a person because it shows one of my hobbies. The stamp that I chose to add to my background was an Eiffel Tower, and the person that made it said that it showed how they had lived in Europe for four years, the same amount of time as me. Because of this similarity, I used this stamp to add to the background along with my stamp.

I learned a lot more about digital art, and how to use Adobe Illustrator. I also learnt more about stamping and printmaking, as before I had barely done anything similar. I think I could take my thinking further by doing more things with Adobe Illustrator.

The most challenging thing for me in this process was making the stamp, because it was something I had never done before. I enjoyed learning more about digital art, and the process of printmaking.


Add comment Posted in  Art March 30, 2015

Through the eyes of a coal mine owner




There were three main consequences of the Industrial Revolution: social, environmental, and technological. In the short-term, the Industrial Revolution industrialized countries, making larger cities, larger populations, and less farm life. New technology, such as the steam engine, began to make things more efficient. The areas with many factories started to get more and more dirty and plant-free. Long term, the Industrial Revolution created many things that are still used today, and cities continue to grow as a consequence of the revolution. World population has soared, and the environment of the world is continuing to be destroyed.





I used to look out my window at the curling, greyish smoke. I looked out at the smoke and tried to imagine a time when smoke was only around a fire. A time when the hooves of horses had a hold on how humanity handled herself. I looked out at the smoke and tried to imagine a time when factories were nowhere. A time where farmers were not toiling in factories, but in fields. I looked out at the smoke and tried to imagine me living 100 years ago. Walking around my grandfathers field, looking at my corn and barley grow and grow, tending to the cows and pigs. But it was so hard to imagine a life like that, before everybody, including us Tylors, moved to towns and cities.

Grandfather once told Alfred and I that we would not be rich if James Watt had not made his steam engine. According to him, factories, powered by coal and the engine, were coming everywhere to make all the things that we needed. I felt like I was hearing something new. Something amazing. At that point, I realized that what was happening was revolutionary, that it would whisk away the last vestiges of rural society. It would usher in a community built with the bedrock of production and the pillars of technology. I was witnessing a time that would change industry forever. An Industrial Revolution.

In my Grandfathers Blanaevon Ironworks, the workers worked. The smelters smelted and the pullers pulled. A tall boy, armed with a sledgehammer, smashed it against a pot of fire that burned as though plucked from the sun itself. The boy slammed again, the clanging reverberating around the room. Again. Again. He looked up at me, desperation in his eyes. I looked back, and found not his eyes but fire, and heard not clanging but a shriek, rising like smoke, wafting out through the tall chimney. My Grandfather gave a sigh of annoyance, and turned to his recruiter. The recruiter told him about how there were hundreds of farmer’s eager to come to his ironworks, and that he shouldn’t worry. After all, the steam engine was not destroyed.

This steam engine allowed things to run for days on end without stopping, no matter the weather. Steamships, powered by the steam engine, traversed the globe, getting resources for the mighty British Empire. Gone were the days of needing wind and water to do things. The age of coal had arrived. Of course, the steam engine was not the perfect machine. It needed a large amount of coal to survive, or it would not work. And that was definitely not the only drawback of the steam engine.

When I asked Grandfather about what it was like before, a look of longing crossed his face. I vividly remember what he said at that point. He waxed lyrical about running around in the clean, fresh air, rolling through the fields in the radiant gaze of happy passerby’s. I never remembered seeing anything like that when I was a child. In fact, it was almost the opposite. I wonder what else is different now from back when Grandfather grew up.


1842 – Mines and Collieries Act


Father looked at me, eyes full of sadness. He had gone like this before, as he reminisced about what he referred to as ‘the good days’. He fondly remembered the times when entire families, sometimes even free of charge, worked in the mines. Apparently, the money saved was amazing. My father once had mountains of gold, temples of silver, all from the blood and tears of the young. We had beds of bronze; we were clad in platinum, surrounded by diamond; all through the work of women. But then, disaster struck.

1842 arrived, bringing with it the one thing that us mine owners across the globe detested with all their hearts. Mine Safety acts. Not just any Mine Act. This was the Mines and Collieries Act of 1842! And, from then on, the life of mining families from the shores of Swansea to the tips of Edinburgh changed. Never again would children be used in the mines. Never again would women be used in the mines. Damn those protestors in London that complained about conditions. With the dawn of the act, the happiness of mine owners plummeted. But little did we know that worse was yet to come.

Then gas was released, and part of the mine blew up. Methane flowed through the tunnels like an unstoppable stream of water, a veritable volcano of devastation that pulverized all in its in path. A miner perished in the blast, but that was an acceptable loss. Even though it was a relatively small explosion, coal has still been lost. Afterwards, I recall my Father walking down with his bodyguard entourage, down to the dead miners house, anger etched on all parts of his face. Within 10 minutes, the house was empty, the inhabitants gone, never to be seen again. All of this could have been prevented, if there was only a small child, there to watch the methane levels.

This is what happens when outsiders interfere in the world of mining. This Mines and Collieries Act has heralded the arrival of a new era in coal mining. An era that is not one a coal mine owner such as myself is looking forwards to.








1896 – Monday 28th January Pendyrus Mine Disaster



Hindsight is an odd thing. When one looks back in it, does it do help? Harm? Both? As I reflect upon the past, it seems to do the latter. And while I think about what I have done, what I could have done, I realize that I will be looking upon this very moment and wondering the same. If I were not reflecting about the passing’s of over a century ago, of the wonders of the steam engine and child labour, could things have changed for the better? Now it is the crack of dawn, and as my late brother Alfred would have said, “There’s no rest for the virtuous.” But as I think about what transpired one day previously, I am wondering if I truly am impartial to events of the loss in the day past.

I had been awake for so long I felt like I had begun to imagine things. There was a faint screaming, fading in and out, as though it was unsure whether to be heard or not. The room I was residing in had started to shake; a slight tremor that I thought only existed in my mind alone. But I only grasped the true implications of the events to come when my Italian jacket fell off the coat hanger, hitting my china pot holding my saffron, taking down my bottle of chardonnay and smashing it into a pile of forever gone money. Running out with the speed of a cheetah, albeit a slow, old, fat cheetah, and heard the screaming far more clearly. It was coming from pits 7 and 8!

Not even six of the clock yet, and I was already needed. I went down to pits 7 and 8, pushing against the onrushing mob of people making a hasty retreat from them. The heat slowly rose like volume, reaching its crescendo at the entrance to the mine. And it was there that I saw what I had dreaded the most. A pit explosion. Not a small explosion that collapsed some dirt. An explosion that took my Pendyrus Mine and tore it asunder, reaching into my heart and crushing it in a grip so vile it could only have come from the devil himself.

My mine is done. My life is done. My world is done. What is left in life but the hateful glances of the miners, the lingering guilt of the vanquished? I know what I will do as much as a miner knows he is to die, and as much as a pickaxe knows when he will strike. All I can do is wait, and hope for the dawn of a brighter day.



Citations: / / / /

Add comment Posted in  Humanities  Tagged:  , , , , March 24, 2015

Polymer Mind Map

Aden Littlewood - Mind Map

Add comment Posted in  Uncategorized March 18, 2015

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