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Early societies were changed in many different ways; one of the most important is changing from a hunter gather lifestyle into a more settled village lifestyle. As time developed, human beings learned to farm and domesticate animals and thus allow people to settle in a more stable community instead of moving around all the time. This change of organization allowed many changes and pushed human society to a whole new level. The skill to farm resulted in surplus food and freed villagers to pursue other jobs and to develop skills besides farming, which includes craftsman, traders. “Individuals who learned to become craftspeople created valuable new products, such as pottery, metal objects, and woven cloth.” (Unit 1, 19.) The more advanced agricultural skills resulted in specialized workers to emerged and the complex institution as well. “The soaring populations of early cities made government, or a system of ruling, necessary. In civilizations, leaders emerged to maintain order among people and to establish laws.” (Unit 1, 20.) In conclusion, a more complex and prosperous economy affected the social structure of village life, and the organization of a more settled community allowed a variety of transformations to happen in early societies.


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My research topic is based on China’s one-child policy, and I specifically focused on the Little Emperor Syndrome. It is a phenomenon where Chinese parents pay all their attention, spend all their incomes and pamper their child.

For this project, I am supposed to use a creative way to show my understanding of this topic. I choose to do an advertisement dedicated to Chinese parents with only one child. Chinese parents often notice their singletons might have socialization issues and health problems, but they wouldn’t admit it’s their problem. So I created an advertisement that could fix these problems, but at the time not suggesting that it’s their mistake that caused this. The upper left picture is a drawing of few children jumping together; it suggests that children who attend this camp get to interact with other children, which is something Chinese singletons lack very much. The picture in the middle shows two children talking about their experiment; it shows that they get to communicate and interact with other children so that it can solve many singletons’ socialization and communication issue. The picture at the right shows children playing soccer and jump rope, which suggests that they get to play outside and move around a lot. Many Chinese singletons are obese because of their uncontrollable demand for food, by exercising, it can let children have fun and at the same time, lose weight immediately. Other texts are just general information about the camp I made up. (The Chinese characters under the Summer Day Camp are just a translated version of summer day camp.) The Chinese character under the schedule for time is collaboration, friendship, exploration and innovation. These first two words represent what skills Chinese children are lacking; the last two words are what Chinese parents want to hear to join a summer camp.

India both benefited and disadvantaged from British Imperialism. British has influenced India since the 18th century, during the first few years of interactions, British were interested in trading with India. Then British were allured by India’s vast resources and took over the political power of India and established military dominance. British has advanced India’s standard of living and humanity but negatively influenced India’s economy.


British imperialism aided India with an improved standard of living conditions through better trade, agricultural wealthy, and improved public goods. Attracted by India’s vast natural resources such as silk, cotton, tea and spice, Britain has created “a steady rise in the value of India’s export trade” (Sir Reginald Coupland). Furthermore, as indicated by the author J.A.R. Marriott of The English in India: “Irrigation words on a very large scale and have brought 30 million acres under cultivation. This has greatly added to the agricultural wealth of the country.” (Marriott, Document 4). Moreover, the improved public goods such as “[a] great number of bridges, more than 40,000 miles of railway, and 70,000 miles of paved road” has allowed India to become more industrialized (J.A.R. Marriott). Finally, it is hard to discard the fact that British’s “throughout schemes [of] relief work” has made famine almost disappeared (J.A.R. Marriott). These sources show that British colonization brought many modern technologies and advanced India rapidly in many ways. Therefore, Britain has caused the standards of living in India to increase as well as India’s sanitation to become better. In the case of other aspects, India also benefited greatly under the British rule.


Additionally, Britain’s imperialistic influence has established a higher and better standard of humanity for India’s society. Britain’s improved ruling has ended inhumane actions such as slave trading in India and providing a better living condition for India’s lower class citizens. Other inhumane actions were also banned. “Early action was taken to stop infanticide (the killing of baby girls)” (Sir Reginald Coupland). This depicts how British colonization terminated many extreme and inhumane actions, demonstrating how the British rule has helped India’s society to reach a higher and better standard of humanity that it has not reached before. However, on the other hand, British colonization has also brought many negative impacts to India through modernization and alternation of ideas.


However, there is little doubt that Britain’s hindrance of economics development and growth of new industries has negatively influenced India. This adverse impact can be noted from data demonstrated in the graph of Food Exports during 1892-1901, as the amount of rice and wheat exports has increased greatly during the British rule, Britain became responsible as the prime cause of India’s great famine. This negative influence can also be seen on a large scale of India’s unemployment. Due to the built of “colonial economy, India became Britain’s “agricultural colony” (Jawaharla Nehru). These sources show that British are taking away and breaking central part of India’s economy by stopping economic development and “preventing the growth of new industries”(Jawaharla Nehru). Therefore, Britain has exploited India’s raw materials and utilized India to export industrial goods, which brought poverty to India.


There is little to question upon Britain’s two-sided influence to India’s society and economic development. Britain has improved India’s standard of living and societal conditions but has negatively influenced India’s economy. Nevertheless, Britain has made a lasting influence on India’s that became part of what India is today.

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She was one of those

Pretty and charming girls born

Although fate had blundered over her

Into a family of artisans


She had no cloths

No jewels


And there were the only things she loved

She felt she was made for them


She had a rich friend

An old school friend

Whom she refused to visit

Because she suffered

So keenly when she returned home

She would weep whole days

With grief



And misery


One evening her husband came home

With a large envelope in hand

He gave her an invite to a party

An upper class party

She was worried if she has anything to wear

So she bought a nice dress with

Her husband’s saving money


She visited her rich friend

And borrowed

A superb diamond necklace

In a black satin case

Her hands trembled

As she fastened it around her neck

And remained in ecstasy

At the sight of herself


The day of the party arrived

She succeeded

She was the prettiest woman present

She danced madly


Drunk in pleasure

With no thought of anything

In the triumph of her beauty

In the pride of her success

Of the completeness of a victory

So dear to her feminine heart


Little did she know

She lost the necklace during the party

They searched around and around

But they had found nothing

By the end of a week

They had lost all hope


Then they went from jeweler to jeweler

Searching for another necklace

In a shop at Palais- Royal

They found a string of diamonds

Which seemed to them

Like the exactly the one

They were looking for


They borrowed money

Finally they were able to buy the necklace


This fearful debt must be paid off

She came to know the heavy work of the house

And clad like a poor woman

Fighting for every wretched halfpenny of her money


Every month notes had to be paid off

Others renewed

Time gained

And this life lasted ten years


At the end of ten years

Everything was paid off



She looked old now

She had become like all the

Other strong women of poor households

Her hair was badly done

Her skirts were awry

Her hands were red



She sat down by the window

And thought of that evening long ago

Of the wall

At which she had been so beautiful


And admired


One Sunday

As she had gone for a walk

She saw her rich friend

Still young

Still beautiful


She was conscious of some emotion

Should she speak to her?

Yes certainly

And now that she had paid


I had some hard times since I saw you last

And all on your account

Her friend was bewildered

You remember the necklace you lent me for the ball

I lost it

But I brought you another one just like it

And for the last ten years we have been paying for it

You realize it wasn’t easy for us

We had no money


Her friend deeply moved

Took her hands and spoke

But mine was imitation

It was worth at the very most five hundred francs

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For his gold I had no desire

I think it was his eye

Yes, It was


He had the eye of a vulture

A pale blue eye

With a film over it

Whenever it fell upon me

My blood ran cold


And so by degrees

Very gradually

I made up my mind to take

The life of the old man

And thus rid myself of the eye forever


Now this is the point

You fancy me mad

Madmen know nothing

But you should have seen me

You should have seen

How wisely I proceeded


Every night about midnight

I thrust my head in

I did this for seven long nights

But I found the eye

Always closed


Upon the eighth night

I opened the door

Little by little

And perhaps he heard me

For he moved

I did not drew back


He shrieked once

Once only

The old man was dead

He was stone dead

His eyes would trouble me no more


If still you think me mad

You will think so no longer

When I described the wise precautions

I took for the concealment of the body


I took up three planks

From the flooring of the chamber

Deposited all between the scantlings

I then replaced the boards

So cleverly

So cunningly

That no human eye

Not even his

Could have detected anything wrong


It was four o’clock

Still dark as midnight

When I had made an end of these labors


As the bell sounded the hour

I welcomed 3 men in

I smiled

For what had I to fear?


The shriek was my own in dream

I said

The old man was absent in the country

I mentioned

I bade them search well

And placed my own seat

Upon the very spot beneath

Which reposed the corpse of the victim


The officers were satisfied

My manner had convinced them

They asked my questions

And I answered cheerily


Ere long

I felt myself getting pale

And wished them gone

My head ache

And I fancied a ringing in my ears

The ringing become more distinct

It continued and continued


Not doubt I now grew very pale

But I talked more fluently


I foamed

I raved

I swore


But it only grew louder




Was it possible they heard not?

They heard

They suspected

They knew

They are making a mockery of my horror









Dissemble no more

I admit the deed

Tear up the planks


It is the beating of his hideous heart

I shrieked

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The boy lay on the sidewalk

Bleeding in the rain


Sixteen years old

With a bright purple jacket

Lettering across the back of the jack

Read The Royals

Name in front of the jacket

Just over the heart



He got stubbed ten minutes ago

And he did not know he was dying


He lay there

wondering if Laura would be angry

wondering if Laura was dancing

He wondered if she had missed him yet

Maybe he would marry Laura someday


The rain was soothing somehow

He had always liked rain


He remember how happy

He was when the Royals had taken him


The Royals and the Guardians

Two of the biggest

He was a Royal

There had been meaning to the title


He wondered about the meaning

If he died

He was Andy

He was not a Royal

He was simply Andy

And he was dead


He felt weak and tired

He felt alone

Wet and feverish and chilled

He knew he was going to die now

That made him suddenly sad

He did not want to die

He haven’t lived yet


It seemed important now to take off the jacket

With great effort, he rolled over onto his back

Pain tearing at his stomach

The jacket had only one meaning now

And that was a very simple meaning


He lay struggling with the shiny wet jacket

Rain is sweet

I am Andy

Japan Formative Assignment

Question 1: How did imperialism affect Japan?

Imperialism has affected Japan to build up numerous rivals against neighboring countries and as well as create a shortage of resources. Japan’s modernization has led itself into a powerful and imperialistic empire, and its continuous conquest has threatened many countries; “After a string of victories, the Japanese seemed unbeatable. Nonetheless, the Allies—mainly Americans and Australians—were anxious to strike back in the Pacific. The United States in particular wanted revenge for Pearl Harbor.” (Textbook unit 7) Japan’s receives countless victories, but at the same times, it is frequent in danger with countries eager to strike back for revenge. Nevertheless, the frequent battles with different nations also expend large amount of resources: “They expected quick victory. Chinese resistance, however, caused the war to drag on. This placed a strain on Japan’s economy.” (Textbook unit 7) Japan’s economy is slipping because there are so many resources used on battles of conquering other countries. Also because Japan is depended on a lot of other countries for resources, some of the resources could come from their rivals; “In July 1941, Roosevelt cut off oil shipments to Japan. Despite an oil shortage, the Japanese continued their conquests.” (Textbook unit 7) In order for the survival on their own, some countries might stop their shipments, and therefore it could result in shortage of resources. Ultimately, Japan’s imperialistic power structure empowered itself, but as well as left it with many dangers with potentials to collapse Japan Empire.


Document 6 is from an 1895 New York Times article, “Hinduism and Islamism”. This article showed the latter-day effects of Aurangzeb’s policies toward Hindus. Gobind Singh was a religious leader of Sikhs, and Sivaji was a Hindu king.

“…In the traditions of history, one of the most powerful elements of national sentiment, the pride of one is the shame of the other. The (Muslim) glories in Aurangzeb, the followers of Gobind Singh and Shivaji detest his memory. Intermarriage is forbidden and is a sin among the myriad castes of Hindus.”

According to the article, how have Aurangzeb’s policies had an effect on Hindus and Muslims in India?



Point: Aurangzeb’s policies causing the Hindus and Muslims to split apart in India.

Evidence: “One of the most powerful elements of national sentiment, the pride of one is the shame of other.”

Explanation: By stating the national sentiment, shows how strongly the two religions detest each other.

Evidence: “Intermarriage is forbidden and is a sin among the myriad castes of Hindus.”

Explanation: Marriages between Hindus and Muslims are forbidden and considered a sin. It shows the interactions between Hindus and Muslims is considered a sin, and further emphasize the two religions doesn’t get along.

Link: Aurangzeb’s Policies influencing different religions being not unified and getting along with each other.


Peel Paragraph:

The 1895 New York Times article highlights and explicates Aurangzeb’s policies triggering Hindus and Muslims to split apart in India by discussing the national sentiment and marriages between Hindus and Muslims are forbidden. “One of the most powerful elements of national sentiment, the pride of one is the shame of other” (1-2). This shows how strongly Hindus and Muslims detest each other. It depicts how Aurangzeb’s policies have influenced different religions and changing the way they behave and function with each other, also how much it differentiated from Akbar’s empire. When discussing the interactions between Hindus and Muslims, the article states “Intermarriage is forbidden and is a sin among the myriad castes of Hindus.” (4) Aurangzeb’s policies have influenced marriages between Hindus and Muslims to be considered a sin. It further emphasizes and explains Aurangzeb’s policies impacted India to be diverse with people from different religions not getting along with each other. Ultimately, according to this article, Aurangzeb’s policies has influenced and impacted India to be an empire with different religions not unified and filled with conflicts and uneasiness.


TThe crash course video included more information and detail than the textbook, but they focused on different perspectives of the India’s history. The crash course video generally focused on the different religion and belief that had spread and existed throughout the India history. On the other hand, the textbook focused on the different empires that had existed in India and the policy they followed and the impact and effect they made. But there is one aspect both the textbook and the crash course video focused massively on, which is the Asoka, one of the greatest Indian emperors in the Maurya Empire and the spread of Buddhism in India. In the early stage of his ruling, Asoka followed ChandraGupta’s footsteps, waging wars to expand his empire. But during a bloody war against Kalinga, many soldiers and civilians were slain and perished from both sides. He felt sorrow for the death of so many people, so; as a result, he studied Buddhism and decided to rule by the belief of Buddhism “peace of all beings”. Both the video and the textbook incorporated ideas about Buddhism, but they focused on different aspects. The textbook focused mainly on the promotion of Buddhism, but the video focused more on the origin, believe and ideology of Buddhism.

Did you know that a little quantity of pepper were once worth more than gold? Those spice jars sitting in your kitchen cupboard might not capture your attention that often, but do you know the incredible history and stories behind them?

The Spice Trade was an important event that happened in the human history. It helped the development of the human race and our modern society and community as a whole, whether geographically, culturally, economically or historically. All of the four lenses of social studies interacted with each other in order to form the Spice Trade and made long-lasting impacts to now days.

Geography connects tightly with a big aspect of social studies- cultural anthropology to help us better understand about the topic. During the time of the Silk Roads, traders and merchants did not exclusively trade silk and other goods; but among the interaction of traders, they also spread religions, ideologies, lifestyle and ideas. Due to the fact that people all live and grow up at different areas of the world, they are only able to learn and acknowledge the cultures, traditions and beliefs that surround them, so the diversity of ideas and religions between countries or continents are quite immense. Because of the trading system, people from the Middle East, Asia and Europe are able to interact with each other, as well as bringing or sharing ideas of their own beliefs and traditions to a different region of the world. The religious beliefs of the people during Silk Road time change massively from what they had been when the Eurasian trade began to talk place on a regular basis. Over the centuries for two thousand years, the Silk Road was a network for the travel of goods and religious beliefs across Eurasia. And at that time, China used to be an isolated and secluded country, because of the emperor’s certainty that China needs to gain respect from other countries, China opened up trade with other countries, and thus allowing the spread of Chinese ideas, lifestyle, medicine etc. Also in the early stage of the Silk Road, there was no official state cult of Confucius, no Buddhism, and no organized religious Daoism in China. Years and years after trading with different country, Buddhism, Muslim and Daoism began to flourish in China.


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During the traders simulation we did in class, sometimes the farmers might pick a card that requires them to hand in half of their goods, because a natural disaster strike their fields or something like that. Or a merchant might pick a card that says a tsunami had attack their ship while traveling on sea, so they lost all of their spices. In real life, of course it doesn’t just happen with a pick of card, but natural disasters and climate change might happen to every travelers and farmers’ goods. As you can see in the example, geography also ties up closely with Economics. Different location’s climate can result and affect the economics of a country easily whether positively or negatively. Also since different geographic locations produces different spices, traders and merchants needed to purchase spices from many different countries to get a vast collection of spices. Geography is what determines how goods travel and this is directly related to the price of the goods. A good example would be the Spice Trade; the spice sold closer to the original growing country would be a lot cheaper than spices sold far away from the place purchased. The more “middlemen” in the middle of a spice trade, the more expensive the prices grew. Also the spices that require a long and risky voyage would cost a lot more than spices that only needs a safe and close by journey.

Through the battles and wars, history has affected economy hugely during the spice trade. Portugal has a fair bit of coastline, but they are also relatively resource poor. Which means they relied mostly upon trading to grow and develop. During the spice trade, the Portuguese captured and controlled a number of coastal cities by firing cannons into their city walls. Because of this, they created a successful trading post empire and helped them to flourish and become a powerful empire in their region. Also in 1580 during the spice trade, after decades of rivalry with each other between Portugal and Spain, Spain has dominated and controlled the European Spice Trading, and they cut Dutch out of the picture. Because of the success of controlling the source of the spices, they raised prices across the whole continent and allowing Spain to have more lucrative trade while other countries thus have to pay Spain more money in order to buy spices. Then the Dutch were convinced they were able to control the sources of spice, so they formed the successful organization VOC. The Dutch then took over and controlled the source of spices, and they were successful with spices and the income they get from selling spices; but their system was also found oppressive and cruel, causing many natives to prefer beggary rather than farming.

There is no single reason behind any action, but a combination of reasons. This is exactly the same for the Spice Trade; one lens of social studies alone cannot explain the whole story. But the combination and interactions of the four lenses of social studies can help us analogize the significance of past events.


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“Proliferation of Buddhism.”Https://www.pinterest.com/pin/118289927684832520/. N.p., n.d. Web.

N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.silkroutes.net/orient/mapssilkroutestrade.htm>.


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