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Changes to Early Societies

How did the organization of early civilizations change?

The organization of early societies changed over time by changing from a nomadic hunter-gatherer society to a society in an agriculture-based village. This is shown by the fact that civilizations developed. This is because in order to be a considered a society, there were multiple criteria that needed to be met, one of which was multiple cities, and surplus of food. In order for the latter criteria to be met, the hunter-gatherers needed to settle down and begin farming due to the fact that hunting produced food unpredictably, so in order to gain a surplus of food to make a civilization possible, hunter-gatherers developed agriculture to produce more food on a regular basis. This caused a change in society because instead of everyone hunting and gathering, only a few people needed to help farm, while everyone else could develop other skills. And in order for there to be cities, the hunter-gatherers needed to settle down in order to build the city and maintain it. Therefore, society changed when hunter-gatherers settled down and began to farm.

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The Most Important Effect of the Agricultural Revolution

In the Neolithic Age, the agricultural revolution brought many changes to humanity. Out of these, the largest effect that it had was that it allowed humans to settle down. This is shown by the textbook passage “these permanent settlements provided their residents with opportunities for fulfillment – in work, in art, and in leisure time. These urban centers would become the setting for more complex cultures in which new tools, arts, and crafts were created.” This passage shows that due to the agricultural revolution allowing humans to settle down, they were able to spend more time working on things other than attempting to produce food, as they could have a stable food supply from farming. This allowed them to produce arts and crafts that historians today could find and learn from. Without the agricultural revolution, this would not have been possible as the hunter-gatherers would spend all their time searching for food. Not only this, but being able to settle down enabled the early humans to invest more time into create better tools, allowing them to make farming, hunting, and various other tasks much easier than they would have been with the older tools. Because the early humans were able to settle down, they were able to increase their quality of life as well as make artifacts which allow historians today to learn more about the past. Because humanity was allowed to settle down, we were able to improve and research technologies, leading up to the world of technology that we live in today. Without those simple upgrades back then, perhaps our technology now would be crude and unrefined.

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How Does Power Lead to Conflict?

The question I chose was “To what extent is conflict an inevitable consequence of power?”

 

Power. Something everyone craves. The ability to control things, make decisions that can drastically change the lives of many people at once. Take a look at feudalistic Japan, or even Japan when it became an imperialistic power. In the case of feudal Japan, a daimyo known as Oda Nobunaga became power hungry. He wished to climb the power structure, become more than just a man controlling samurai and peasants. He wished to make the daimyo his vassals, too. And then there was the beginning of imperialistic Japan. Having taken Manchuria, Thailand, and other land masses from two large forces, China and Russia, Japan was confident that it was powerful. And being powerful, Japan wanted to take more. Become more powerful, to the point where even the United States and Britain, two of the largest countries, could not battle it. Japan sought to expand its empire. But what happened when these two things happened? Oda Nobunaga wanted to take over Japan, but he wasn’t the only daimyo who wanted to. Naturally, this meant a battle between Oda’s forces and the other daimyo’s. This lead to a long and bloody struggle, in which Oda was unable to defeat all of his opponents and unite Japan. In imperialistic Japan, however, Japan was united and Japan was powerful. Having taken land from two larger countries, China and Russia, Japan felt powerful enough to take on the bosses: Britain and the United States of America. However, this war was also long and bloody. In fact, when the Americans attacked Guadalcanal, over 24 thousand Japanese troops died, not to mention all the American troops who died, too. Oda and the other daimyo’s were fighting because they had similar interests, yet none of them wanted another to become more powerful. Japan wanted to become a powerful imperialistic force, but were instead shut down in a bloody, violent, and hugely explosive fashion* due to conflicts with the interests of other nations.

 

 

*Footnote: Yes, that was an atomic bomb dropping on Hiroshima and Nagasaki reference.

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DBQ PEEL Paragraph

P: Jahangir did not persecute his Hindu subjects.

E: Jahangir claims that he is a “powerful monarch, a shadow of God upon Earth,” and that he has seen the blessings that God bestows upon all creatures. He says that he is at peace with “all of the human race, with all of God’s creatures,” and so does not feel the need to break the peace to cause any “molestation or aggression towards anyone.”

E: Jahangir did not want to attack his Hindu subjects because he felt at peace, and that there was no reason for him to harass the Hindu’s, as they were “usefully engaged.” This way, neither his conscience suffers, and nor do his subjects.

L: Though Jahangir had subjects who practiced the Hindu religion instead of the muslim religion that most Mughals followed, he did not persecute them, for his country’s gain.

Jahangir viewed his Hindu subjects the same way he viewed his other subjects. He claimed that he felt as if he was “a shadow of God upon Earth,” that he had seen “that [God] bestows the blessing of his gracious providence upon all his creatures without distinction,” and that he was at peace. Due to this, he asked why he should want to be the cause of aggression towards anyone, and so even though they practiced a different religion, he left Hindu subjects alone. Not only this, but Jahangir realized that by attacking the Hindu people, he would lose a class of people who were “usefully engaged, either in the pursuit of the arts or science, or of improvements for the benefit mankind.” This shows that Jahangir views his Hindu subjects the same way he saw his other subjects, and that he let them practice their religion for the country’s own gain, and so he wouldn’t need to stain his conscience.

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Analyzing the Spice Trade with Social Studies Lenses

SilkRoutesThe spice trade in the 1400’s is an event that allows us to carefully inspect how the four lenses of social studies (cultural anthropology, geography, history, economics) interact with each other, and how when used together, can be used to analyze past events, as sometimes a single lens can not completely explain an event. Some of these lenses work better with each other than some of the others do. For example, the geography and economics lenses, when used together to analyze the spice trade.
In the spice trade, travelling was something the traders had to do in order to acquire the spices to sell and profit from. Because of the costs of traveling across bodies of water and across land in order to access and participate in the “Asia-centered trading networks” (“Big Era Six – The Convergency” by Irene Segade, 23), the traders had to sell the spices for higher prices than the price they purchased it for in order to make a large profit from selling the spices. This was because the distances between each of the places in the trade route were fairly far apart, as seen as the map above. This meant that if the merchants who bought the spices themselves went to the trade centers themselves, instead of relying the traders, the middle-men, then they would have been able to reap a larger profit from selling “cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg,”(Segade, 22) and other goods in high demand. In fact, the merchants did not only sell spices; they sold other goods such as “rugs, Chinese lacquer-ware, and cotton cloth.”(Segade, 23) This was because the Europeans enjoyed having these rare exotic items that had not been seen before due to the distances between Europe and the central spice trade area, as seen by the amount of vast European steppes needed to be crossed in the above map. Economics, however, is not the only lens that meshes well with geography.
Cultural anthropology is also interconnected with geography. This is because when the traders travelled, they brought to their destinations bits and pieces of religion and the ideals of the places they had come from. For example, take Buddhism. Before the spice trade, the amount of people who practiced Buddhism was steadily declining in India. When the caravans began passing through India, they took scrolls about Buddhism and brought the ideals to other areas, such as China. Because of this, the amount of Buddhists increased, and the religion became one of the largest in China, meaning that not only did the traders trade goods, but they also traded ideas. These three lenses help to show and explain why spice prices were so high during the spice trade, and how ideas were passed from city to city.

Segade, Irene. “Big Era Six – The Convergency.” (n.d.): n. pag. World History for Us All. UCLA. Web. <http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.edu/units/six/panorama/06_panorama.pdf>.

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The 4 Lenses of Social Studies and the Spice Trade

By considering the evidence presented in the Traders simulation, and the ‘Spice it up’ reading done in class, explain how the 4 lenses of the social studies interact to help us understand how the world works. Max 1 paragraph.

The 4 lenses of social studies help us understand how the world works by using the history lens as an example of things in the past, such as the spice trade, and how things worked back then that we can compare to how things work now. For example, the history of the spice trade can show us how people traveled in order to sell the spice and keep the spice trade going. The economics lens can show us that in the past, during the time of the spice trade, majority of the people in Europe were not rich enough to afford the expensive, luxurious, and much sought after spices such as pepper and sugar in order to improve their lifestyles. The cultural anthropology lens can show us what the Europeans believed during the spice trade, such as their belief that being tea had restorative properties that kept one from dying. Each of these lenses also intermix with the other lenses. For example, the economics lens mixes with the geography lens to show us how much it cost to navigate the seas in order to acquire spice in order to sell it for a large profit in Euorope. The spice trade also shows us how a few sought after items can turn the market and economy of a country around, as is shown by how the importation of tea and spice in Europe changed the amount of money spent and who suddenly became more wealthy. The merchants and traders who bought and sold the spice became rich, whereas the rest of the populace of Europe tried to acquire spice, and in the process, spent a lot of money.

Time: 15 minutes

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Spice is Up Question

“What does this task reveal about you as a learner ?”
It reveals how much information I can gain from scanning a document, and how much I can learn from reading the document. It also lets me know how fast I can read, and how long it takes me to process the information I get from reading something.

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The Pawsitively Purrfect Guide to Grade 8: 5 Tips

It’s a great feeling to be king of the hill. The top tier of grades in school. More specifically, 8th grade. However, passing into this grade can take leadership, responsibility, and will to get your work done before late at night. Here are some tips that I made with my partner Evan to get you well fitted into this role of leadership – accompanied with a series of adorably adorable cat GIFs.

Tip #1. DON’T procrastinate 

[Some guy/girl probably made/looked at this while procrastinating. Don’t be like him/her.]

Tip #2. Don’t let teachers catch you doing stuff you don’t want them to catch you doing

Tip #3. Print your work before class

Tip #4 . Study for tests! (Also rubrics when doing a project.)

Tip #5. Resist the temptation to be mean to the younger graders.

Be nice to them like a cat loving a bunny.


[The GIFs can be found here.]

[The featured image is one of the GIFs.]

 

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Paul and I: Similarities and Differences

A young boy who’s family has been utterly decimated by both their enemies and their former allies. A boy who vows to utterly destroy his enemies, and thereby solve his conflicts. A different young boy in a different setting, one who has been lied to by both friends and enemies, who says he will never forgive and never forget. Paul Atreides and Drason Zhang. Two completely different people in similar situations. I will be comparing my past experience with Paul Atreides, protagonist of Frank Herbert’s book Dune, and how we each solve our problems.

Lets take a look at the issue. Paul Atreides. His family has been attacked by the Harkonnen’s and the “legions of Imperial Sardaukar” (290). He vows to avenge his father and all the servants they had by killing the members of the Harkonnen family and by dethroning the Emperor. Then there’s the five year old me, a young misguided child assuming that everyone would be his friend, totally unaware of the fact that some disliked him. Upon being lied to by both foe and former friend, I vowed to never forgive or forget what has happened to me. Though the cause of our conflicts are different, we choose to solve it in similar ways.

To begin with, Paul begins by “accepting the religious mantle” (691) that his Fremen followers have given him. His followers agree to help him dethrone the Emperor, and he begins to plan his attack on the Emperor. On the other hand, I also attempted to gain allies (Note: This began my life of observing people and calculating how they felt about another person). I carefully watched the way people interacted with my new enemies, and approached the people who seemed to dislike them. I tended to be right. With these new people, I began to form a plan to confront my foes (who happened to be physically larger and stronger than I…).

Paul finds out that the “Emperor has arrived on Arrakis” (731) and decides to “breach the Shield Wall” (737), a large wall designed to shield Harkonnen territory from the Fremen, and began his attack on the Harkonnen’s base on Arrakis. On my side, my group of friends encircled the people who had lied to me.

Paul, after taking control of the Harkonnen house, challenges the heir to the Harkonnen House, Feyd-Rautha, to “kanly” (783), a honor duel, and wins. He then takes the Princess Irulan’s hand in marriage, thereby humiliating the royal line and destroying the last of the Harkonnen’s, allowing him to fulfill his vow. On my side, I was unsure of whether or not I wanted to be the cause of physical violence. So, I talked to them, found out why they lied to me, and actually befriended them. I think I am still in contact with one of them now.

And those are some of the similarities and differences between my conflicts and the conflicts of Paul Maud’Dib, better known as Paul Atreides.

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Dune: The Movie

DuneMoviePoster

 

I made an unofficial movie poster for Frank Herbert’s novel, Dune. The poster shows how an incident in the story causes the protagonist, Paul Atreides, to make a decision. The incident was when the “Harkonnen troopers attacked [House Atreides] viciously and mercilessly” (288) with “legions of royal Sardaukar (elite fighting force)” (290). This causes Paul to realize that the Empire is against House Atreides, and leads him to believe that the Empire is corrupt, causing him to want to overthrow the Emperor. However, he does not have a fighting force capable of fighting the Emperor’s royal Sardaukar, hence the words “one boy against an empire”, and the sole figure climbing up a sand dune. The sand dune symbolizes Paul’s new home; the deserts of Arrakis. And so with his new “neighbors” in the desert, the Fremen, Paul decides to make a fighting force capable of overthrowing the Empire.

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