Create Project: A Dialogue of Great Man

Background
By late 1960s, the cold war was moving rapidly. Tension grew everywhere, especially in Asia. The Korean Wars and the Vietnam Wars torn through the continent, with nations forced to choose between the western bloc and the eastern bloc. The communist bloc was anything but united: tension rises between the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. The once close allies found themselves calling each other “revisionists”. Border firings and skirmishes are not uncommon, along with possibilities of rapid escalation. To the South, the Vietnam wars became was a new frontier. China supported the communists in the North, seeking to remove American influence in the region while America found itself stuck in an undesirable war. China found itself isolated. It just ended a war with India, and the only friendly neighbour was and American ally, Pakistan.

Mao Tse-tung: Grew up in the rural Hunan Province. This man became one of the world’s most powerful dictator. By the 1970s, Chairman Mao suffered multiple chronic disease. Though he no longer cares for the administration of China, he retained the final say in important issues.
Chou En-lai: The Prime Minister of China, educated in France. A shrewd diplomat, he was in charge of the negotiations.
Richard Nixon: 37th President of the United States. He rose to the office by promising hardline policies against Communism. Ironically, the visit to China became one of his greatest lasting legacies.

Opening Moves

Mao: Welcome Mr. President. Do sit down. Before we start talking about the future, what do you think of our Chinese Hospitality?

Nixon: I really appreciate it. China has been a great nation known for its hospitality through out the millenniums. Oh, how I wish the Democrats in my country could be half as hospitable as you Chinese are?

Mao: Ha(chuckles). You see, Mr Nixon, I like rightists like you. Rightists speak true to their hearts, unlike some of those bastards around me.

Nixon: We all have our problems, Mr. Chairman. I hope our friends to the north, are not giving you too trouble. These damn Soviets are just backstabbers.

Mao: Agreed, Mr President. The Polar Bears? These Soviet revisionists don’t have any moral conscience whatsoever. They only want a puppet in my place who will gladly do anything they ask. And how many times have they broken their promise? When the old Czar was overthrown, they promised to annul those old treaties. Yet look at where we are now. They should be never be trusted. Anyway, the Soviets are not our priority.

Nixon: Well, perhaps we can discuss the future of our relationship. Mr. Chairman. We hope that we can find common ground, despite out differences, to build a world structure in which both can be safe to develop in our own ways on our own roads. We can counter the Soviet influence in the region. Is the Soviet not trying to turn your Xinjiang province into another Outer Mongolia? We shall demonstrate to the world that China and US can work together, as partners.

Mao: Sadly, Mr President. The same cannot be said for some other nations. China always sought to develop peacefully, of course in its own way while retaining its sovereignty. We are no threat to the world. But some nation treat us in a hostile way. It is hard to find true friends in this world today. Nixon: Which is why we are here today, Mr Chairman. US and China, while different, do share much common ground. Together, we can achieve more. China would benefit from US, as US would benefit from China. But we all have interests that cannot be neglected, perhaps you can discuss them with the premier later, in a progressive manner of course.

Nixon: Mr. Chairman, a communique would be ideal for our situation. Should our negotiations prove fruitful, perhaps we can issue one on the future of the relation between our nations.

Mao: Those questions are not questions to be discussed in my place. They should be discussed with the Premier. I discuss philosophical questions. Have we covered enough for today…

The Polar Bear

Nixon: Mr. Premier, I am fully aware of the border skirmishes that happened in the recent months. The United States hope that it can counter the Soviet Union together with China.

Chou: Yes, the tension has been high. These Soviet revisionists stationed roughly a million soldier near our borders. But, as the Chairman has said, Russia will drop its atomic bombs on America and America will drop its atomic bombs on the Soviet Union. You may both be wiped out. China too will suffer, but will have four hundred million people left over. They are of bigger threat to the United States, than to China.

Nixon: The United States, does not wish for a full-scale confrontation. Neither would the Soviet Union, as it is safe to assume. To have the United States balance out the Soviets would be in China’s interest, correct?

Chou: And to have China balance out Soviets would be most desirable for the United States. Fair enough. We both play each other as a card against the Soviets, that would pressure the Soviets into better terms. Their polemic against China, and the principals that we uphold must be be halted, with military pressures if needed.

Nixon: The last thing the United States would want, is to see a more influential Soviet Union in the far east. If we are to work together, Asia will be more stable, and safe from the Soviet Union.

The Irritant: Taiwan
Chou: Mr. President. Taiwan has aways been a sacred territory of China since ancient times. There can be only one China, and that cannot possibly be the nationalist one in Taipei. We sincerely request the withdrawal of all US military, especially the fifth fleet. To have a foreign navy in China’s water is like to have the Soviet station nuclear missile in Alaska for US, a blatant attack on our Nation’s sovereignty.

Nixon: Mr. Premier. The United States does not wish to damage China’s sovereignty in anyway. We understand that the unification is inevitable. But immediate actions are impossible. To do so would be breaking our defence treaty with Taiwan. That would be
Chou: Mr President. The place is no great use to you. But a great wound for us. China has suffered humiliation by the hands of you western Imperialists in the past century. If the normalisation of the relationship between us is to continue, we must agree on actions to resolve this issue. The United States wants to improve relations with China, yet it continues to support the Chiang Kai-Shek clique. Is this not self-contradictory?

Nixon: I assure you that the United States will support the unification China, peacefully, of course. However, to immediately withdraw our military would be a sign of weakness. Should that happen, we would embarrass ourselves. I cannot promise you immediate actions, for that would weaken my political positions in US. That would be most undesirable for both of us. Many in US question my visit and would gladly destroy whatever process we have achieved. But I always do more than I say. No American personnel, directly or indirectly, nor any American agency, directly or indirectly, will give any encouragement or support in any way to the Taiwan Independence Movement.

Chou: The chairman will be very pleased to hear that. But I must urge the United States end its support to the Chiang Kai-Shek Government as soon as possible.

Indochina
Nixon: Mr Premier. The matter of Indochina, is most urgent to us. Ending the conflict in the region would benefit the world greatly. The United States wish end them as early as possible.

Chou: Mr President. If the matter is truly so pressing, then why haven’t you ended the war already? Why does the United States keep on interfering in the domestic affairs of other nations.

Nixon: US would have gladly withdraw all of its armed forces, if only the North Vietnamese will sit down and negotiate sincerely. They argue for days just for what kind of table to use in the negotiations and where each person sits.

Chou: Certainly they do not negotiate truthfully, but they have a right to choose their own leader. The army that the United States is fighting against, is simply seeking to free their nation from a corrupt and oppressive government. Though I have to agree that the Vietnamese are half-cooked and rash in their manners. But different from US’s position, we see Vietnam as an issue of no great importance. So long as no foreign force interferes in that area, then the issue is solved.

Nixon: If there are no negotiations, we will eventually withdraw, unilaterally. But our position is not to maintain nay particular government in South Vietnam. We want the people to remainCorrect me if I am mistaken, if the government is as unpopular as you seem to think, then the quicker our forces are withdrawn the quicker it will be overthrown. That would be in China’s interest, no?

Chou: The manner in which the United States shall withdraw all of its soldiers is none of our concern. We do not seek to influence other nations. Our soldiers do not fight this war. They merely build roads, as opposed to your army. Have you forgotten the deeds that the United States committed in the past years in Indochina? Your government has broken many promises, for instance failing to hold election scheduled for Vietnam in 1956. This was false, dirty, what Dulles did. The United States, must withdraw all its troops and all its military installations. Moreover, it should end its support for the Thieu government in the South. If all foreign presence is removed, then peace is within grasp. It is such a shame. You have given the Soviet Union a chance to say that the music played in Beijing to welcome President Nixon has been together with the sounds of the bombs exploding in North Vietnam…

How did the organisation of early societies change?

The organisations of the early societies changed due to new and more efficient way to gather food, agriculture. “Over the centuries, people settled in stable communities that were based on agriculture. Domesticated animals became more common. The invention of new tools—hoes, sickles, and plow sticks—made the task of farming easier…Settlements with a plentiful supply of food could support larger populations.”(Textbook, 19) The creation of the large-scale settlements, characterized by large population, could not exist without a “plentiful supply of food”. Food is essential in keeping a settlement alive, and the old hunting-gathering would not suffice. This revolutionary change in food production, an “invention of new tools-hoes, sickles, and plow sticks”, all of which used in agriculture, provided a more efficient way to produce more food for a rising population. However, the advancement in the agriculture also allowed for a more complex economy and social structure. “To cultivate more land and to produce extra crops, ancient people in larger villages built elaborate irrigation systems. The resulting food surpluses freed some villagers to pursue other jobs and to develop skills besides farming…As other special groups of workers formed, social classes with varying wealth, power, and influence began to emerge. A system of social classes would become more clearly defined as cities grew.”(Textbooks, 19) A large surplus will create different specialised workers. The freedom to pursue different carriers brought complexity to both the economy and social system. “Social classes with varying wealth power and influence” appeared inevitably, due to the complexity of the economy comparing to the time when hunting-gathering is the only job. When complexity appeared, so did a gap in wealth and social positions. The specialized workers were essential in modifying structures of the society. In the early stages of civilisation, the structure of the society remained remarkably simple and plain due to the exclusive method to gather food. Later, the society evolved into a more advanced and sophisticated one due to the creation of specialised workers and an ample supply of food from agriculture. The simple change in the food production has caused significant consequences in three aspects of humans culture: how humans interact and take advantage of the environment, how agriculture drastically improved people’s life and how complex social structure began to characterise human societies.

Asian Studies Peel Paragraph

The most important effect of the Agricultural Revolution was the improved efficiency in food production. Data had shown that the global population only start to expand when the Agricultural Revolution began ten thousand years ago. This data proved that the Agricultural Revolution did have a direct correlation with the expanding population. The expanding population will lead to more conseuences. As seen in the case of Catal Huyuk, the village was highly populated with a population of more than 6000 people and a large group of them are high skilled workers. The town had the benefits of sewage and public ovens that are the product of the workers freed from agriculture. Once a certain amount of food surplus exists, a settlement can afford workers who can improve the living standards. The increased food production and surplus not only allowed the population to expand but also freed the majority from farming. The social structure of a civilization will change as the focus moved from agriculture to other industries. These results of Agricultural Revolution changed the culture anthropology and economy of mankind forever. Therefore, the improved efficiency in food production as the most important effect of the Agricultural Revolution.

Create Project: Abandoaned

Create Project Rationale
Abandoned is a short film adoption on the events after the the short story by Roald Dahl, “Lamb to Slaughter”. It is a horror story telling the death of four teenagers by the hands of Mrs Malloney, a murderer from the short story. They explored the haunted house, unknowing the dangers inside. They were separated and killed ruthlessly.

The creation of this short film, including its scripts and scenes proves my understanding of the setting and characters. The understanding is proven from my editing part in the script. I helped my group to create a more realistic mood and setting through which our 4 scared characters are portrayed. Take for example the framing of the shot when Michael(acted by Nicholas Horniblow), was trying to escape the house. The shot was close up which created a more intimate connection with the audience who would in turn sympathise with the characters. Understanding of the original text, such as Mrs Malloney’s personality was a key guidance to the creation of this story, as her mental illness plays a key role in the conflict. Also, the wording of the lines are kept to the simplest vocabulary, considering the situation and the scenario are tense: “John died. Do you hear me? He died! This is for real. This isn’t a joke.”

English Social Issue Educational Text

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How did Japan’s location result in it pursuing imperialist policies?

Frank Cui

Mr. Fidler

Asian Studies A4

24-11-15

How did Japan’s location result in it pursuing imperialist policies?

Japan’s unique geographical conditions limited its resources and therefore expansion was the only option which lead to imperialism. During the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese war, 40% of the war funds were borrowed oversea.  This demonstrates Japan’s limited resources and capitals can not support its military. With a land much smaller than that of its rivals, Japan can not support its military and industry using its own resources. Its land is to small to even engage in large scale resource-heavy industry, let along fund its tiring wars. Thus, the only option is acquire foreign resource and capitals through colonialism. As the textbook states in unit 7: “It was an area rich in coal and ore. In 1931, the Japanese army seized Manchuria…The army then set up a puppet government. Japanese engineers and technicians began arriving in large numbers to build mines and factories…” This proves that the intention of Japan’s imperialistic act was to exploit foreign country’s resources. In order to achieve this goal with maximum efficiency and minimum international censure, Japan created a new power structure. It placed a puppet government in place of the original one and ruled by it. Exploiting its colonies, Japan could afford a larger army and a larger industry. This in turn will lead to a greater power position and create an asian superpower. In conclusion, Japan’s imperialist policies were results of its ambitions channeled by its need for m ore resources caused by its unique geographical location.

Asian Study DQB question Blog Post

Document 5 is from Baktha’war Khan, an adviser to Aurangzheb, Mughal Emperor from 1658 – 1707.

“…Hindu writers have been entirely excluded from holding public offices, and all the worshiping places of the infidels [Hindus] and the great temples of these infamous people have been thrown down and destroyed in a manner which excites astonishment at the successful completion of so difficult a task. . . .”

  • This document is written by a official of Aurangzeb who reported of the anti hindu policies .
  • Hindus are banned from all government offices.
  • Hindu place of worship are destroyed.

CULURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

POLITICAL

RELIGION

P: The policies of the Mughal Empire towards Hindus during the reign of Aurangzeb was hostile, non tolerant and muslim orthodox.

E: The hindus have been ‘entirely excluded from holding public offices’. All temples of the ‘infidels’ have been ‘thrown down and destroyed’ which was a considered by the regime as a sources of ‘excitement’.

Ex: These policies, non-tolerant against non-muslim-believers, are typical of an orthodox islam regime. They retook the rights given to the Hindus by the rather liberate emperor Akbar, such as the right to take part in politics and  the right to practice their religions freely.

L: It can be concluded that the policies of the Mughal empire towards Hinduism during the reign of Aurangzeb returned to the typical muslim orthodox hostile and non tolerant, from a much more liberal policies compared to that of Akbar’s reign.

The policies of the Mughal Empire towards Hindus during the reign of Aurangzeb was hostile, non tolerant and muslim orthodox.

The hindus have been ‘entirely excluded from holding public offices’. All temples of the ‘infidels’ have been ‘thrown down and destroyed’ which was a considered by the regime as a sources of ‘excitement’. These policies, non-tolerant against non-muslim-believers, are typical of an orthodox islam regime. They retook the rights given to the Hindus by the rather liberate emperor Akbar, such as the right to take part in politics and  the right to practice their religions freely.  They represent also an typical hostel attitude through considering the destruction of Hindu Temple as an pleasurable act. Therefore,  it can be concluded that the policies of the Mughal empire towards Hinduism during the reign of Aurangzeb returned to the typical muslim orthodox hostile and non tolerant, from a much more liberal policies compared to that of Akbar’s reign.

Asian Studies Summative Assessment

Frank Cui

Mr. Fidler

Asian Studies

September 10th

On the Benefit of Using Multiple Lenses of Social Studies

Scholars have always studied past events using the four lenses of Social Studies combined, as none of them can explain the world on their own. There is no single reason behind any action, but a combination of reasons. Consequently, no single lens of Social Studies can explain the past events alone. The spice trade between Europe and South East Asia is a competent example that can be used to illustrate the importance in using not only one, but various different lenses of Social Studies in analyzing of past events.

There were manifold reasons that brought the Europeans to the South East Asia . Only a combination of  Economy, Human Anthropology and Geography would make the understanding possible.  In a world with less developed logistics, the longer the distance between the market and the product’s place of origin, the higher the price and rarer the good. Generally speaking, expansive goods tend to have a high profit margin. Many culture value wealth. Also, most culture do not tolerate others, especially if they have different religion. Driven by desire for wealth, countries of different religion are constantly trying to weaken each other, by all means. War and politic are not the only way, having a economic advantage of the other country can be crucial as money is power. As revealed in the case of spice trade, all three lenses of Social Studies do play a crucial role. Before the spice trade, there were already pre-existing trade routes. Yet it was either monopolized by the Muslim or the city-states of Venice and Genoa through their strategic positions in the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean, both important geographical feature of the their land. The lucrative profit of the spice trade encouraged the Europeans to engage in direct trade with South East Asia through a new trade route not controlled by opposing factions. While the Europeans took on what is considered by them a divine duty being the superior: the conversion of all humanity to Christianity, the main force driving them to action is the desire for wealth and power. The Muslims’ role in this event was to geographically block the land routes, forcing the Europeans to sail via sea. But the magnetic force of the spices made Europeans risked their ships into unknown water, an important geographical aspect of that time. Europeans have little or no previous knowledge of the geography, yet they were undaunted by the huge risk of the unknown. These maps were far outdated supplemented by bits of second-hand knowledge from the Arabs. Above all, these map only give the mariners a vague and inaccurate idea of the islands. As revealed by the map drawn by Pigafetta Antonio, a sailor who took part in Magellan’s voyage around the globe, theses maps have little or no indication of distance and scale whatsoever. Only a combination of cultural determination and mercantilism  helped the Europeans discover the sea routes to South East Asia. In addition, culture, especially nationalism and religion, resulted in both inter-European conflict and religious conflict. Without those conflicts, no single country would heartily support expeditions.  Such school of thoughts that prioritize one’s country and religion is deeply embedded within the European Culture. The very idea of Mercantilism was thriving in the European culture at the time. According to C.L.R. James, the Europeans of the 18th century, Europe has yet to ‘emancipate itself from that combination of feudalism and commercial capitalism which we know to be mercantilism.’    The varied ideologies present are key to analyzing but prone to misunderstanding. Without all of those different lenses of Social Studies, it would be hardy possible to look at spice trade without a heavily biased view. No event could be considered norm when studied at a different time period. Even on a pure theoretical level, one reason is never enough, multiple lenses of Social Studies will always be present in important events.

While the inhumane way that the Europeans treated and exploited their colonies is considered cruelty, it can be easily understood when the human Anthropology and Economy of that specific time period are taken into consideration. The very idea of colonization was to both extract wealth in forms of both money and raw material and proselytize the indigenous people into Christians. For a governing body to make the most profit from trading, monopoly and high taxes combined would make the most profit. In order to convert the indigenous people, their own culture must be first ruthlessly crushed. The doctrine of white supremacy, that justifies colonialism as ‘a presumed responsibility’ of the white and discrimination of indigenous people as ‘a duty to teach the inferior being the culture of the superiors’  dominated Europe at the time. This school of thought influenced countless colonists including a British Imperialist, Cecil Rhodes who founded the Colony of Rhodesia. He justified the ‘burden of the white man’ and colonialism as such: “I contend that we Britons are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race. I believe it is my duty to God, my Queen, and my country…”.   Behind the ‘divine duty’, lies the highly lucrative spice trade and a nation’s dependency on the accumulation of large capitals. Wealth make nations powerful. Wealth make nations influential. The largest profiter of the spice trade was the Dutch East Indies Company(VOC) which supplied Netherland with an affluent supply of both spices and precious metal. Its monopoly in the region made the Dutch trading Empire one of the largest of its kind in the history. According to Reckless M.C’s A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, a successful trip would make around a staggering 400% profit (M.C 27) . In addition, the Dutch East Indie Company, is the first corporation that issued stock. Those systems were first introduced during the spice trade and illustrated the power that corporations can hold. The government did sponsor voyages, yet without those merchants or corporations, the progress would have happened at a much slower pace. The ever growing capitalism combined with colonialism fueled the spice trade causing the exploitation of South East Asia.  Taken both Economy and human Anthropology into consideration, the inhumane way the Europeans run their colonies were at the time, of their best interest and fit with their religion. If only human Anthropology was used in analyzing, it would result in the belief that Europeans are ‘religious maniacs’ and vice versa if only Economy was taken into consideration.  The four lenses of Social Studies are inseparable with their presence as a combination vital to the analyzing and understanding of past events such as the spice trade.

Works Cited

Antonio, Pigafetta. Figure of the Five Islands Where Grow the Cloves, and of Their Tree. Digital image. Princeton University Library. Princeton University, n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2015.

Meilink-Roelofsz, Marie A. “Preface.” Preface. Asian Trade and European Influence: In the Indonesian Archipelago between 1500 and about 1630. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1969. 2-3. Print.

“Spice Islands (Moluccas): 250 Years of Maps (1521–1760).” Princeton University Library. Princeton University, n.d. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.

Ty, Rey. “Colonialism and Nationalism in South East Asia.” Diss. Northern Illinois U, n.d. Abstract. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Sept. 2015.

“C. L. R. James Quotes and Sayings Quotes by C. L. R. James.” C. L. R. James Quotes and Sayings. Jonathan Lockwood Huie, n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2015.

Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 27.  ISBN 0-333-57689-6

map-moluccas-pigafetta copy

Spice It Up Question

The task is made of multiple steps:

1. Scan: Scan the story(1 min)

-scanning skills

2.Question: Write 3 questions that would guide reading

-skill of questioning

3.Read: Read through every single detail

-reading skills

4.Answer: Answer the questions

-critical thinking skills

 

History: The lucrative profit that was shown in both the simulation and the text was a huge motive for the Europeans to establish connection with Asia which moved the History forward. The Colonization of the region was an important event  in the History that triggered many other events including the creation of the modern nations in the region. This showed what could happen when similar factors are present and what events could be triggered.

Geography: Spice trade is in essence human interacting with Nature and each other. Human harvest spices form the natural environment and changed it to maximize the growing efficiency. The environment changed vastly due to the impact of the spice trade including birth of many large settlements such as ports. This showed that the reason behind the creation of such human settlements such as trade.

Human Anthropology: The spice trade  brought european culture to Asia and Eastern Culture to Europe. The exchange of culture here is a common type of culture  exchange that happen under such factors. This also happens to explain how the a culture can be destroyed by a technically superior one.

Economics: The spice trade brought huge change the economics of the Big Six Era. Before, the middleman-Arabs had a huge cut of profit and dominated the trade using their geographical advantages. Now, a new form of trading companies occurred. They are partly state owned and controlled the supply chain from the very beginning. This new form of Economy brought huge wealth to the Europeans and served as a model for other colonies.

13mins

Torn in half

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In the book, the main protagonist is having a hard time to choose between his duty tot he crown and his friendship with the white prophet, the fool. The situation only worsens after the prince had been sent to kill a dragon on the request of the Narcheska. The fool, however, declared that the dragon must remain alive as he had seen in his prophet for the good of the world. As time is dwindling, Fitz can not understand those choices and their consequences. His mentor, Chade declared that the importance of fulfilling the prince’s quest weighs above all else. Yet,  Fitz can not decide. The situation only worsens after Fool foretold his own death in the quest and its necessity.

In the book, ‘Fool’s Fate’ by Robin Hobb, this internal conflict is one of the main conflict that intensified as the plot progressed. While the more of the mystery is unraveled, the more doubt it put the the main protagonist’s mind. He discovered that the request of the Narcheska has also a plot behind it, and his relationship with he monarch, is again changing. From a assassin, to the skill master and mentor. He has only became more conflicted, with no sign of resolution. “Sometimes it seemed to me a cruelty that so much was unresolved between us; at other times, a blessing that a hope of reunion lingered.” The conflict raging in Fitz’s mind only increased through out the book, yet he can not understand nor resolve any of them.

Source Cited:

“Iphonetextgenerator.com – Generate Perfect IPhone Text Message Chat Screenshots in Seconds.” Iphonetextgenerator.com – Generate Perfect IPhone Text Message Chat Screenshots in Seconds. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Jan. 2015.

Hobb, Robin. The Fool’s Fate. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004. Print.

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