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From the data collected and analysed, our catapult was relatively successful. Although is was by large inaccurate, the principles demonstrated by the catapult were consistent. As you can see from the embedded video below, our first trial was somewhat successful, but we could’ve improved on its accuracy.

One of the most important things to learn from this project was in the design process. I learned not to try to go and make the best catapult as we tried, using a unique design. Sometimes, sticking to the norm is the safest and most useful method to go. One of the most challenging parts about the catapult challenge was creating the equations, and using those equations to apply them to the catapult challenge. It really opened a new realm of action and application in our math unit. One thing I would do next time would be to make our catapult more conventional and stable. Although it was fun and a learning experience to experiment with the catapult designs, in function it did not carry out all our expectations while making it. The challenge helped me understand quadratic functions by providing a unique situation and application task(s) that I could learn from.

Overall, the catapult challenge was an interesting project that provided a reprieve from the regular worksheets and videos of math class. The application areas of the catapults was in the challenge itself, where we had to use our functions and scale them in the real world to hit targets. The catapult challenge was interesting, challenging, and fun. A good one.

Polymer Project Journal #4 – Finalizing and Further Steps

Our fourth and final journal entry deals with the topic of what our polymer is after all the testing and changing, what it can do, and what we can do to further develop it. The link to the infographic is below:

Below is the commercial created for the purpose of making the polymer seem appealing to a wider audience:

Polymer Infomercial on Biteable.





Polymer Project #3 — Procedures

Our 3rd journal entry is a carryover of our second, except this time, we describe limitations and create a rough procedure for the polymer testing stage. Here is the link:

At the time of writing, the main focus was on creating a polymer base. Now that a base that is somewhat stable has been rendered, our secondary focus and aims are to establish an even more malleable base and make it more palatable.

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Polymer Project Journal #2 – The Polymer Itself

In this journal entry, the primary focus is to have our polymer’s characteristics and desired qualities defined. Here is the link to the infographic on the second polymer project milestone.

Our polymer’s main aspects will be an adaptable base so different types of foods and nutrition items can be included, a simple and stable polymer so it is pleasing to eat and easy to hold, and finally, a clear and tough appearance so the different types of food incorporated into the polymer can be identified by color.


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Polymer Project Journal Entry #1 — What is a polymer? What is the difference between Synthetic and Natural polymers?

A polymer is generally thought of as the proverbial slime in science experiments: green, slimy, a mess, and fun to play with. But scientifically, a polymer is something much, much more different.

Above is a link to the infographic I created detailing the beginning of the polymer project.



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Arcology – The Future of Society

Current Research Question Draft:

What are potential ways sustainable cities could be coupled with life on land, water, climate change, and renewable energy?

What are some ways China can integrate sustainable society/cities into itself?

What is China currently doing to integrate sustainable cities? What are some future steps to make?




noun: arcology; plural noun: arcologies
  1. an ideal integrated city contained within a massive vertical structure, allowing maximum conservation of the surrounding environment.


A proposed arcological construction

For the Capstone project, my preferred issue to focus on would be an environmental issue, but I am more than happy to include other issues from other sections such as Renewable Energy from prosperity.

My current working research question is, “What are some ways China can integrate sustainable society/cities into itself?” It is a work in progress and I’ll probably edit it. I don’t think any fears will arise in the process of creating and researching the question, but one possible obstacle that could present itself is lack of evidence, especially in the environmental spectrum of sustainable cities.

On the other hand, I hope to gain a deeper and more profound knowledge regarding sustainable cities, and possibly have some ideas of my own. Finally, I hope that feedback from my peers would be regarding the integrity of the information and on how to improve upon the knowledge given. N. p., 2018. Web. 30 Mar. 2018.


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The American Revolution, Journaled

Call me Scott. I was born under a willow tree in a hot summer night in 1756, December 8th. For 15 years, I led a peaceful life as the son of a carpenter, until the British government decided it was time to tax us. I was soon scripted into a life of revolution, war, and patriotism. And this is my story – The American Revolution, Journaled.



Although the revolution is finished, and many aspects of life have changed, I still feel like many things have stayed the same. Even though we are now independent and free, some others are still not. Many people of different skin colors and different heritages are being forced out of the country, and gender discrimination is an unstoppable force, bulldozing through the new nation. Our government has changed from a monarchy to a democracy, but there are still the power struggles that we experienced during the revolution as well. People seem to have an unsatisfied desire for control. However, the changes that have happened are full of greatness. Ordinary people now had more power and could vote, be leaders, and fulfill their lives. You no longer had to be a King’s son or a royal to be useful. The power for these ordinary people were shared too. Everyone had a say in what the country would be like, and everyone had personal freedom and rights.


Image Citations:  2018. Web. 18 Mar. 2018.  2018. Web. 17 Mar. 2018. 2018. Web. 18 Mar. 2018. N. p., 2018. Web. 19 Mar. 2018. N. p., 2018. Web. 19 Mar. 2018. N. p., 2018. Web. 19 Mar. 2018.

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For thousands of years, humans have thrived in societies, under the leadership of others. But what happens when that leadership is corrupted? Through 20 years of papers, muskets, and capable men, the American Revolution happens.

After the 7 years war, Britain was broke. So, to fix this problem, they began to tax their far-flung colony that is now known as America. Nothing harmful in that, just asking for money from a colony to fuel the main country, like bees in a beehive. But what happened next is considerably more harmful that a couple of British officials demanding for money. The major cause of the American Revolution was in that the Americans didn’t like to be taxed. Although the British thought the taxes to be perfectly fine and at that a good way to bring Britain back to its former glory, the colonists thought otherwise. The colonist tensions escalated to the point of war, and finally, on October 19th, 1781, at the Battle of Yorktown, the American revolutionaries won the decisive siege that ended the American Revolution. For the full story, watch the 5-minute video explaining it in more detail.

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The Eight Armed Sea Spider: The Octopus Scientists

He who cannot be seen: Octopi can fit through anywhere, as long as the opening is larger than their beak

          It is often said that food is the essence of life, and in the short, nonfiction picture book The Octopus Scientists, it could not be more true. A group of scientists ventures to the research foundation, CRIOBE, on the island of Moorea to study the octopi around the Moorean reefs. Their trip is documented by Sy Montgomery and compiled into a book, The Octopus Scientists. The book explains everything about the scientist’s journey from their research to their lifestyle. The text revolves around the central idea that the food an octopus eats and the meal remains of its food are vital to octopus research for the scientists, as they help determine the best time and place to study octopi, how to locate octopi for hands-on research, and how to differentiate octopus species, all crucial aspects for octopus research.

          For starters, the food an octopus eats is indispensable to the species and – indirectly – the location of the particular species. As mission reporter Sy Montgomery summarized on page 66, “…in Moorea, the same species of octopus acted differently than the octopuses previously studied in Hawaii…those in Moorea didn’t stay long in their dens and didn’t bring lots of prey home”.  According to Montgomery, although by definition the same species in both Hawaii and Moorea, the octopi in Moorea acted significantly different than the ones in Hawaii. Montgomery further stated that the difference could be “… because Moorea has different octopus food than Hawaii…[Hawaii has more crabs in terms of prey]” (Montgomery 66). These conclusive pieces of research at CRIOBE continue supporting the central idea of the text that the meal remains of an octopus are extremely important to octopi research, as the difference in octopus diets make a substantial difference in the behaviour and can be what differentiates separate octopus species. As shown above, the prey selection in the area and, invariably, the general practice of Moorea octopi differ from the actions and preferences of Hawaii octopi, because of differences in available prey, forcing octopuses to adapt in order to catch food and consume it. Octopus hunting and eating habits change to fit particular foods, and general activity will change as well to adapt to the different diet style as well, thus creating new and unique octopus varieties and possibly species over time.

          Furthermore, octopi, in order to reduce hunting time and energy, will live near plentiful food sources that they eat. During a search in an area laden with sea cucumbers, one of the team members mentions that “…if octopuses don’t eat sea cucumbers [and they don’t] then this is not the place for our study” (Montgomery 14). This quote shows that an octopus’s food is what governs where it lives because an octopus would not live in an area without prey available to it. If an octopus ate sea cucumbers, then the team would have arrived at a research gold mine, their location being so laden with sea cucumbers. But since octopi don’t eat sea cucumbers, the group now gathers valuable information from the food selection on where not to study octopi. Alongside this, data derived from octopus meal remains can also point as to when to better analyze them. Octopus prey are also subject to breeding periods, migration patterns, and population fluctuation. Significantly different octopus meal remains could point to a shift in prey selection, and recurring elements in this data further help scientists determine when octopi will be most active and when they will be most dormant, narrowing down a specific timeframe to fully utilize their resources to study octopi.

              Finally, the remains of an octopus meal can help find its location simply because an octopus is likely to deposit food remains near their den(s) to save time, energy, and mark territory. As team members Montgomery and Jennifer explain, “Jennifer…looks for piles of intact shells. Such ‘garbage heaps’ are known as middens, [A collection of shell and meal remains an octopus makes] she explains, and she considers these the best giveaway that an octopus is occupying a home nearby” (Montgomery 17).

Octopus midden from Flickr user Steven Severinghaus – Creative Commons 2.0

An octopus lurks in its den, behind a pile of shells left over from its meals. (Juneau Empire)

This statement shows that octopus dens and octopi locations are best found using the help, and extra information that middens give, thus further supporting a central idea in the text that the meal remains of an octopus are essential to octopus research. Since octopi are likely to deposit food remains nearby their home to save travel time and energy, finding and examining their middens not only help locate octopi for hands-on study and analysis, but also narrow down the types of food the octopus in question eats, providing invaluable statistics that other forms of octopus research cannot.

        But how can this be relatable? What is the point of such tedious work to study simple invertebrates? Well, aside from reproduction, food has always been the primary focus for organisms, and for humans, it is still a large part of our lives. We share common traits with millions of species of animals, and octopi are no exception. Octopi, like many other wild animals, spend a significant portion of their time alive hunting for sustenance.

The rest is devoted to building a den, moving, and mating. Similarly, before the arrival of crops and domestication, humans struggled on a day-to-day basis of procuring food to feed oneself and the family. Bands of hunters would hunt and live nomadic lives, scouring the landscape in search of edibles. Just like the modern day octopus, primitive humans spent virtually all their time on food. Unlike octopi, however, humans eventually grew into a more sedentary lifestyle, generating food through the means of crops, livestock, and trade.

Although today our views on what is the most important in our lives have changed drastically from earlier times, it is a surprising amount of primitive instincts and habits that have surfaced in our daily lifestyle that make themselves known.

              Overall, the central idea in the book The Octopus Scientists is that the the meal remains of an octopus help scientists study octopi better. They provide data for a multitude of important factors about octopi, such as where and when to study octopi, how to find octopuses for closer observations, and how to accurately classify them with the right traits. Moreover, octopi bear a striking resemblance in nature to early humans, many habits of which still carry over in today’s modern society. The basic needs and instinct of an animal, to eat, to create or find shelter, and to mate to continue the species are all prominent features in today’s life. While we may not realize it, we share much more than a common ancestor with octopi.


Image Sources:

“On The Trails: Middens.” N. p., 2018. Web. 24 Feb. 2018.

“Triassic Kraken | Microecos.” N. p., 2018. Web. 24 Feb. 2018. N. p., 2018. Web. 24 Feb. 2018.

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The One Place That You Should Go Before You Die


In “A Wrinkle In Time” by Madeline L’Engle, a group of intrepid young children goes out on a quest through the cosmos to find their father and rescue him from evil forces. With a quick-minded and fast-paced plotline, the story goes out of its way to consistently put the characters into strange, never seen before setting situations. In this multi-media blog post, I created a fictional postcard in which a fictional character writes to a fictional friend (Lots of fiction: Now a theme here? Hmm.) about how the setting details affect mood. I chose two quotes from the book:

One from the very beginning, a paragraph chock-full of vivid setting details, and one from when the children land on an alien planet, Uriel.

Both are great examples of how setting can affect the reader in a great way, yet in this post, it’s the tag-along visitor to the adventures that writes about it. Needless to say, the setting is a powerful tool in storytelling and often can be the first thing that casts the first impression upon the reader or audience.

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