## Blogpost #4: Reflect and Share

Science project display, through compilations of videos and separate pictures:

Functioning, Energy Transfer, Pros and Cons of final product:

So, above is the final demonstrations of my project (flashlight). The most obvious energy transfer here is electrical potential energy, which was stored in the battery, to light energy, shown when the lightbulb lights up. On a lighter note, the project has definitely reached its primary purpose: the electrical potential energy is, by all means, transferred to light energy, as (1)the lightbulb lights up after I connected a black wire from the negative side of the battery to the positive wire of the lightbulb, while the negative wire of the lightbulb directly touches the positive side of the battery.

Thus, in this case, the battery is the source of the electricity. And, when all the parts(for reference, please refer to (1)) are in the correct contact, the electricity will begin flowing through the wires. So, this is essentially a basic electric circuit, where a battery is connected to a lightbulb, and where through the black wire the current flows from negative terminal of the battery to the lightbulb and flows across the filament of the LED lightbulb. And, this will convert some of that electrical energy, which started from stored electrical energy in the battery, to light energy. Furthermore, due to the reason the batteries are arranged (that is – + – +), the current will then flow through the battery to return to the negative terminal of the battery, which is also will the entire process will start again. And, this is also why contact must be very good throughout the flashlight to prevent hindering the electric circuit, which will cause the flashlight to stop lighting.

My goal for the project is to make the customers be able to watch their feet and at the same time in front of them in the dark, when having to travel distances. To achieve this mean, I have made the flashlight into a t-shape, with one of flashlights having a lightbulb that can shine in front and the other flashlight being able to shine down, and that is the purpose of the t-shape.

Overall, my project was pretty successful. However, personally, now I have realized the LED lightbulbs are too small and thus its effects are not as big as desirable. So, next time, if I can do the project again, I will most likely, instead of seeking for convenience and going with the LED lightbulbs supplied in the classroom, I will purchase bigger-volts lightbulb. As a result, the battery volts will also have to increase and thus I want to increase the general scale of the project.

Another thing that I believe to be a con of my project, is that though throughout my developing my prototypes, I have constantly strived and worked tirelessly towards the aesthetics of my flashlight; however, at its current state, I will have to admit that the flashlight is still not very pleasing to the eye. And, that would be another less significant area of improvement.

Impact of this project on environment and potential client/consumer:

The impact of this project on potential clients is that with this flashlight, the customers can see their feet and what is in front of them at the same time in the dark, while normal flashlights will only allow them to shine on one at a time. The tiny negative impact that this project will have on the environment is that it will consume more energy, because this flashlight is a combination of two flashlights, so as a result, it would need more batteries and thus more energy.

## Blogpost #3: Create and Improve

Prototype 1:

For the first prototype, I spent a lot of time trying to make there be light for the first prototype, as I couldn’t figure out how to light up the LED light. And after I figured up that there are actually a positive and negative wire for the LED lightbulb, I connected the negative to positive of battery and the positive wire of the lightbulb to the black wire connected to the negative side of the battery. Soon, the lightbulb lighted up. However, sometimes the lighting is inconsistent, because the batteries are sometimes not taped strongly enough and are actually not touching or the wire is simply not touching the negative end of the battery. These issues are issues to do with contact, so in my next prototype, I will have to eliminate this issue by being extremely careful when taping the wire and the batteries to make sure they are in full contact for the electricity to flow to the lightbulb and to light it up.

Prototype 2:

In the second prototype, the light is much bright and lighting up very consistently, as I have applied more tape and taped the batteries and the wire very tightly, which was a big improvement to the first prototype. This prototype can be improved upon, not technical  aspects, but aesthetics: this prototype is rapped about by duck tape and does not appeal to one’s eyes at all. In addition, I want to make an easy on/off button which I can control whether the flashlight is on or off easily. Which is why in my third prototype I would want to try to make the flashlight look more aesthetically pleasing and also add a something similar to an on/off button.

Prototype 3:

So, the third design is essentially my final prototype. Throughout this design, I have used white hard paper and wrapped it around my flashlight tightly and taped it, in order to make the flashlight look more aesthetically pleasing to the eyes. Furthermore, I have poked two holes opposite of each other on the paper which is near where the LED lightbulb touches with the positive side of the battery. These holes will serve the basic role for the on/off button. So, when I pock the negative wire of the LED lightbulb, which will need to be touching the positive side of the battery for the lightbulb to light up, into one hole, it is currently in its “off” stage; and when I pock the negative wire of the LED lightbulb into two holes (one hole and the other on its opposite side), the lightbulb will light up, converting to its “on” stage, and remain so, unless turned again to its “off” stage.

## Blogpost #2: Develop and Plan

Model for flashlight (including label measurements, materials, fasteners/adhesives & techniques needed for construction):

Modifications of plan during development stage:

However, throughout the developing stage, I realized that one part of my plan is minority flawed. As though I originally planed for a 3-volt lightbulb, there are only LED lightbulbs available, and for convenience, I tweeked my plan to make it work. So, I decided to change the 3-volt lightbulbs to LED lights in my design, because that would also work.

One major difference will be that for the normal lightbulbs, the wire will connect the negative side of one of AAA batteries to the silver part of the lightbulb, which is also touching the positive side of the second battery. On the other hand, because the LED lightbulb has two wires, one negative and the other positive. This will mean the negative wire of the LED lightbulb will need to be touching the positive side of the battery and the positive wire of the LED lightbulb will need to be connected with the black wire touching the negative side of the battery, in order for the light to go on. And, that is a slight difference from my plan.

LED lightbulb

## STOP THE WASTE AND LOVE THE FOOD

STOP THE WASTE

AND

LOVE THE FOOD

Despite being such a pressing issue around the world, food waste has not been taken seriously in many places. Reinforcing the ignorance of the public towards the issue at hand, in fact, every year, approximately 1.3 billion tons of food are wasted from human consumption in the world, and the amounts of food wasted, in more economically developed countries(MEDCs), is equivalent to 680 billion dollars, while in less economically developed countries(LEDCs) 310 billion.

As seen in aforementioned statistics, food waste is happening widely around the world and is not taken in serious regards. However, food waste is casting a detrimental impact on our society today: wasted food’s final destination are landfills, and due to the way these food decomposes, methane, a greenhouse gas, can be generated. Though serving no serious threats at low concentration, at higher concentrations, oxygen can potential be displaced by methane, leading to deprivation or lack of oxygen, which may cause suffocation. In addition, breathing in high levels of such gas can result in facial flushing, nausea, slurred speech, agitation, nausea, and headache.

Furthermore, food waste not only imposes serious threats on the public health but also to the environment. Methane have a very high global warming potential—21 times that of carbon dioxide’s, ranking it amongst the worst of greenhouse gases. Even more surprisingly, according to Washington Post writer, Chad Frischman, they “discovered that cutting down on food waste could have nearly the same impact on reducing emissions over the next three decades as onshore wind turbines”, and throughout his essay, the recurrent theme of “as one of the drivers of climate change, food waste has been vastly overlooked.” All in all, food waste not only negatively impacts the public health but also the health of our environment and planet, and it must be taken more seriously.

In an individual’s day-to-day life, actions can easily be taken to reduce one’s food waste: shopping smartly, as in not buying more food than needs, as most people are inclined to; save leftovers for each and every meal; compost food if possible; make sure to read, understand, and note expiration dates for food products; and finally, store food correctly to avoid unnecessary waste.

Bibliography:
http://www.fao.org/save-food/resources/keyfindings/en/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/07/31/food-waste/?utm_term=.f1fed1027bd4
https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/reduce-food-waste

## Blogpost #1: Define and Inquire

During the Science engineering project, I will be working on making a flashlight with two lightbulbs, with one shining on the ground and the other shining in front. This way is better than traditional flashlights, as one will be able to watch their feet and what is in front of them at the same time in complete darkness, without having to only shine on one at a time. This will be used when an individual wants to use the bathroom, get water, or do something that requires traveling distances at night, and provide more convenience. And, one downside to this new invention is that with two lightbulbs, it will waste more energy, than the tradition flashlights with only one lightbulb.

https://www.thebetterindia.com/11596/ignite-innovations/

## Impressive Improvement

Practice Plan:

1. 30 minutes of tonality and dexterity practice each day
2. 15 minutes of practice on the actual song

For my goal for the impressive improvement project in band, I chose tonality and dexterity, as those are key elements to playing an instrument well. First, I selected a piece of music that will be able to demonstrate the tonality and the dexterity of one’s playing, and made an initial recording of me playing the score. Then, I made a practice plan, which I will strictly follow everyday(see above). Lastly, I will be making a final recording to show my progress. I hope that through practice I would be able to see a stark improvement and progress from the initial to the final recording I make on the piece.

## First 3 Week of Band

My first 3 weeks of HS band are truly awesome! Though I have been in band in MS for two years, HS band is still something new to me. And, I loved my first tastes of it, and look forward to the rest of the year for band. I am prepared: having a pencil on my stand, bringing my chorale book and musics, bringing my oboe, and making sure that I practice outside of class to make the most out of the class time. I like how Mr. Long always has an agenda of what we will do in that particular band class; it keeps things clear and coherent for me. Mr. Long’s new reading glasses are… haha nice! 🙂

## WHAT? THIS IS THE END?

1. As a result of the Capstone Project, I have learned many things about my issues, ranging from the causes and effects of the problem to individual steps towards reducing air pollution.
2. The project not only broaden my knowledge of air pollution, but also instilled in me a passion to alleviate and to solve the issue. Using my documentary, I have informed my fellow peers about the serious threats air pollution can cast on us all, and have hopefully persuaded them to, along with myself, to all takes steps to reduce air pollution in China.
3. I have always known that air pollution is bad. I have criticized and launch into tirades because of that. But before, I never took steps to stop the problem. I mean, I was never part of the problem, but I was never part of the solution either. After delving in the problem of air pollution, I have realized how detrimental the effects are, and now seeks to reduce air pollution through taking small actions to solve the problem
4. I drew upon the skill of communication. Communicating clearly and coherently is an paramount skill in my engagement with the community.
5. If I were to do this blogpost again, I would maybe delve even deeper in the issue. Instead of just exploring how can an individual reduce the air pollution, I could perhaps even learn and propose actions the Chinese government can take.
6. The Capstone project is a not necessary fun project, but a project that will be highly beneficial to your growth as a person. It prompts you to learn many things about the issue you have selected.

## I’m the Ball Fired by the Catapult into the Ocean of Quadratics

The Process of Creating Our Catapult:

We switched the rubber band from the thick and short one to the thin and long one because after testing, we consider the latter one to be more effective.

Our Final Catapult:

Our planning sheet & the success criterion:

Two Videos of Our Catapult in Motion:

catapult

catapult testing

What did you do?

In the catapult project, the students are instructed to create a catapult that possesses the ability to hit targets accurately and consistently. At the end of the project, a catapult challenge will be held, in which the students will attempt to hit various targets with varying difficulty levels. The most successful team in the challenge with be bestowed the Catapult Cup.

What was the most important learning from this project?

• Personally, I think the most important learning from this project is that math is not as abstract as I thought but it can be applicable to real life and is actually, in reality, tangible, shown through the catapult project in which teams use functions to calculate the distance we should place the catapult from the target in order for the ball to hit the target.

What was the most challenging aspect of this project?

• The most challenging aspect for our team is that our catapult’s distance when firing the ball is not fairly consistent. Sometimes, it is quite far, other times it is close. We solved this problem by simply trying to keep our actions and strength when firing the ball the same. Afterwards, the distance was kept pretty consistent.

What would you do differently next time?

• If we were to do the catapult project again, my partner and I would apply more hot glue to our design when assembly it initially, as a part of the catapult fell apart and even after we hot glued it on again, the performance of our catapult was not as stellar as before.