Green Machines-The Best Solution

From this Capstone Project Video, one thing I did good is using primary and secondary sources in my video. With my sources, I was able to use graphs and statistics to show my evidence. Another thing I did good is having an organized slide. Because my slides were organized, it seemed chronological making my video make sense. One thing I can do better is my voiceover. My voiceover sounded like a radio because I accidentally put the microphone too close to my mouth.

Shoot and Goal, Catapult Project

Reflection

What was the most important learning from this project?

What was the most challenging aspect of this project?

What would you do differently next time?

From this catapult project, our class was introduced in many different ways how to use quadratic equations. In this project, it was the catapult. I feel that the most important part of this project is using the quadratic function you got and interpreting it into your graph. Furthermore, you had to use the graph and analyze what each part meant. This is the hard part of this project. Thus, you have to label every part of the graph and communicate what it was meaning mathematically and in the context. This was also really challenging at the same time because we have to interpret it both mathematically and through the context. Since mathematically having a negative x-value made sense it was easy to do it. However, as the part of interpreting to the text comes out, this became harder because we have to talk with the right domain and with one word said wrong the catapult would go completely wrong. Another challenging aspect was making the Height vs. Time graph to Height vs. Distance graph this was hard because we had to get the average value of the distance to convert the graph from time to distance and sometimes there were a lot of outliers. Thus, even though we got the graph when we did the catapult challenge, the graph was not always accurate so we could only estimate the distance.

One thing I would do differently next time is the filming process of the launch before putting it into logger pro. At first, we made a mistake of filming it right to left and this was a problem because if we would film from right to left, the logger pro would think that you start from the farthest side of the x-axis. Not only that, our filming place was not that good. We were not able to see the ball clearly because we filmed in a place where there was light in the background. Because the light is in the background, we weren’t able to plot dots carefully because we didn’t know where the ball went. If we film it in a place where we could see the table tennis ball clearly, this would help us a lot because if our logger pro is more accurate this would mean that the graph for Height vs. Distance would be even more accurate. Overall, this helped me understand the quadratic function better because I was able to know how we could interpret quadratic functions in real life. Also, we were using the vertex, y-intercept, and x-intercept to identify where our ball went which not only was fun but we could also see what each meant.  With this, I gained the ability to identify the domain and range accurately. Finally, this project also let us know which part of the x-intercept we should use to make sense in the context. This project lets me learned all the parts of the quadratic function leading to a more successful path for me.

At first, we didn’t think about interpreting the context.

Later on, we changed it so that there are our labels and represents every feature of the graph. The domain was also set to fit the context of the problem.

Later on, we changed it so that there are our labels and represents every feature of the graph. The domain was also set to fit the context of the problem.

This is my description of height vs. distance and height vs. time in the handout.

Elevator Pitches-Reflection

Explanation of Project and Reflection

Talking about why SDGs are important, in Grade 8 Humanities currently we are running our capstone project. The capstone project is studying our Sustainable Development Goals and find solutions for the future. Through many research, it has shown that climate action is the most important SDG for China and below is my speech and reflection of what I should work on. This speech was a form of an elevator pitch, which meant we have to strongly give reasons in a short amount of time. This is just like when you are explaining to others why your SDG is important in an elevator. The paragraph below is my reflection of what went well and what I need to improve.

For my future, I would like to myself two things to improve. Do not hesitate, do not use a lot of filler words. Even though you are nervous, stay calm and do not stop. Next time, I need to look less at my note cards and maybe spend more time speaking it fluently. If there are dons, there are also ups in this speech. I was able to maintain a good eye contact and speak at a just right speed. Even though there were hesitations, I made eye contact with the audience which made sure that they were focusing. I was on topic so I was able to show what green buildings are and why they are important. For my future, I should work on speaking a little bit clearer. I should also stand up straight so that the audience is not distracted by my gestures and only focusing on what I am talking about.

Polymer Journal #4-The Final Design

Prototype Observations

 Prototype Observations Strengths for this Prototype Limitations for this Prototype 16ml Borax, 8 ml of water, PVA solution: 5ml, Glue 1cm Doesn’t stick very well, too rubbery, very smooth, too hard at first, doesn’t stretch Bounces 15cm after hitting the table. Strength because of if it is bouncy, it means it’s stiff. If the polymer is too hard at first, there is no way we could change it forms before it gets dry. Thus, if the polymer doesn’t stretch, it will be hard to adjust the size because it would break down into pieces before we can even change the shape. We found out this happens because of too much borax.  Because of the almost equal amount of these two monomers, it will create the polymer superslime. 1 cm of glue, 8ml of PVA, 3ml of borax, 4ml water Trial 1: slowly hardens (3min 43sec), Bounces less than the first recipe, cannot form different shape but stretchy, after hardens doesn’t stick well Trial 2: Interestingly in this trial, we were able to form a different shape. The time the polymer hardened was reasonable and it bounced 9 cm which was a good amount of softness when we accidentally get hit by the table. Trial 3: From this test, we were able to see that the different shape test was inconsistent and we had to fix that problem. So, for we decide to put more glue, 4ml more so it could become even stickier, 2ml of borax so the polymer is even flexible Overall, the benefit is that compared to the first recipe, even though there is no flexibility to change its shape consistently, but it hardens in a much more time. The polymers are stretchy, and we still think that we are using the right monomers. We were to able fix the major problems from the recipe number one. Even though there is less bounciness, the object could slowly harden. However, our problem was that different shapes were not able to form. Yet it is stretchy, we can’t make a different shape of the polymer. Inconsistently, able to change its shape. Not able to change its shape once it’s hardened. 15 ml of PVA, 4 ml of water, 5cm of glue, 2ml of borax Trial #1: The amount of time is successful, 7cm of bounciness (successful), 4 min of time Trial #2: Hardens in the just right amount of time, could form into different shapes.   Trial #3: Sticky and doesn’t fall off, Stiff, Bouncy, Could Change into different shapes The strength of this prototype is that it is very bouncy, gives you sufficient amount of time to adjust the size, and could form into different shapes. The 5cm of glue makes this polymer not only sticky but also a thick blob giving it a very safe structure. If kids accidentally hit a table corner, with this polymer they will be safe. It hardens so it would stick permanently unless you use outer force. Through polymerization, the Borax and PVA make the polymer a solid throughout time. This synthetic polymer is made out of monomers that could easily harden itself. For all trials: The limitations are that once this hardens, there is no way that you could get change the shape. Even though you could pour a little bit more water, it wouldn’t do the function as well as before. Borax and PVA makes a solid solution and even though there is way more PVA, still it will harden after 4 minutes. What this means is that you have to put it on the table before 4 minutes is up which is a limit to this polymer.

Stick on the table to use this polymer.

Prototype Claim

Too watery, can not stick to the table, not able to form into different shapes.

Prototype # 3, called WORLD BEST POLYMER was most effective in meeting our goal because:

It was stretchy which meant that we could form different shapes. The other polymers weren’t able to form into different shapes however this one could. Thus, it was also able to stick and don’t fall off even if it was hardened which met our requirements. We could see that it does meet our requirement because it passed the 3 types of a test conducted. Even though if it hardens, we can’t change the shape there are 4 minutes to change it so you will have enough time to change the shape before it even hardens. It is sure that the polymer will stick because the characteristics of PVA and glue through polymerization, the polymer will be even sticker. This polymer is very unique because it is very sticky on the inside but not on the outside. Through the bouncy test, we could see that the WORLD BEST POLYMER is bouncy and stiff so it is safe to keep injuries away. The monomers are perfect for this polymer so that there are no injuries.

Method of Final Design

The basis of the materials we need.

Ingredients:

15 ml of PVA, 4 ml of water, 5cm of glue, 2ml of borax

1. Pour 5cm of glue and 4ml of water into the beaker.
2. Add 15ml of PVA and 2ml of Borax.
3. Add 2 drops of blue food coloring.
4. Mix the ingredients with a wooden stick.
5. Put it in your hands as you see the mixture of monomers making a polymer becoming a solid and add more 0.5cm of glue if there is no solid formed.
6. Add one or two drops of glue if it is stringy and pour one or two drops of Borax if it sticks in your hand.

Summary of how final product should look like:

The final product should look like a big blob of the light blue colored polymer. The width should be about 3 cm wide and the length should be about 2 cm long. When you bounce it on the floor it should be able to bounce at a height of 6-8cm. It should be stiff and flexible which means that if you poke in slowly there should be no holes forming.

Once you have this nice blob it is ready for putting the polymer into your hands.

Reflection

Overall this project was a very influential and educational project. I learned different scientific vocabularies such as polymerization, monomers, and polymers. There were some ups and downs throughout the process. Even though we know the materials that would make the polymer to meet its requirement, it was challenging because if we pour too much of the wrong material it wouldn’t be a good polymer. For example, at first, our group poor too much borax which made the polymer not able to stick. Interestingly, we used the same materials throughout the whole process but changed the different amounts such as using 8->15ml of PVA which made a different type of polymer. We also learned that if the PVA and Borax amount are the same, this will make a polymer that is superslime which won’t meet our requirements. That’s why we decided to change our recipe.

Journal Entry #3-Science Polymer Project

Recipe #1:

16ml Borax, 8 ml of water, PVA solution: 5ml, Glue 1cm

Why use this ingredient?

Borax is used so it doesn’t change it’s shape once it hardens. However, this was a problem in our polymer because it quickly let the polymer not able to stretch which meant it couldn’t change to fit into different tables. 16ml of Borax was too much because this made it too stretchy.

Water is used so that it could combine with other chemicals, this doesn’t cause any problems

PVA was used to stick which was a good ingredient to choose however because of borax it turned into a slime just like the super slime which was a problem.

Glue was used so we could make a simple polymer that reacted.

Observations and problems for each trial:

Trial #1: 3min test: hardens before 3 minutes

Bouncy test: Bounces 15cm after hitting the table

Different Shape Test: No forms could be made:

: Trial # 2: Made into a slime form, too bouncy, smooth, hardens as soon as we take it out, does not stretch

TOO MUCH BORAX!!! TOO SLIMY!!

Recipe #2: 1 cm of glue, 8ml of PVA, 3ml of borax, 4ml water

Reasons for use of ingredients: 5->8ml of PVA solution because this is needed to make a sticky polymer. The sticky polymer is what we want to stick the polymer onto the table.

16->3ml of borax: This was a major change because this way the polymer is not sticky.

Glue: Same amount

Water: 8->4ml because as we reduce the ingredients of borax and PVA we have to decrease the amount of water.

Observations and Trials:

Trial #1: 3 min test: 3 min 43 sec to harden

Bouncy test: Bounces 8 cm of the table

Different Shape Test: Not a success can only do it to sharp corners

Characteristics: slowly hardens (3min 43sec), Bounces less than the first recipe, can not form different shape but stretchy, after hardens doesn’t stick well

Trial #2

3 min test: 3min 39sec to harden,

Bouncy test: Bounces 9cm

Different Shape test: Success could change a little bit

3min test: 3min 41 sec

Bouncy test: 8.7 cm

Different Shape Test: FAILED

Added materials. What is it going to be like?

Starting to stick a little bit better at Recipe #2. However, inconsistent shaping.

Recipe #3: 15 ml of PVA, 4 ml of water, 5cm of glue, 2ml of borax

Why use these ingredients? 8->12ml of PVA, 4ml of water, 1->5ml of glue, 3->2ml of borax

PVA solution increased because we wanted more stickiness

4ml of water so that we could balance the amount of PVA and borax to get a nice polymer

The increased amount of glue, so that polymer becomes more bouncy

Decreased amount of borax so that we could get a flexible polymer.

Trial #1: The amount of time is successful, 7cm of bounciness (successful), 4 min of time.

3min test: 4min 12 sec

Bouncy test: 7 cm

Different Shape test: Success

Trial #2: Hardens in the just right amount of time, could form into different shapes.

3 min test: 4min 10 sec

Bouncy Test: 7.2cm

Different Shape Test: Success!!!

Trial #3: Sticky and doesn’t fall off, Stiff, Bouncy, Could Change into different shapes

3 min test: 4 min 23 sec

Bouncy Test: 7.1 cm

Different Shape Test: Success!!!

Observations: We successfully made a polymer that is meeting all the characteristics we wanted. It is sticky as well as stiff and not only that we could change its form in 4 min.

Final Recipe! Sticks perfectly onto the table and now dried!

Stick on the table to use this polymer.

Describing Our Polymer

1. We are making…

A polymer that is 4cm of length, 3cm of height, 6cm of width and used for a table corner protection to keep kids and adults out from danger.

Why?

1. We want the Physical Properties to include:
• Sticky
• Able to change shape easily
• Hardens after a while
• Stiff

Our Plan to Develop our Prototype

*Prototype = sample or model

1st we will…

First, we will build our design with 3ml of Borax, 15ml of PVA, 5cm of glue.

Why?  As explained in the three trials of testing with Recipe #3, we have to successfully build a design using these ingredients so that we get a nice sticky, adjustable, and flexible polymer. 15ml of PVA and 3ml of borax will each make the polymer sticky and hard.

2nd we will…

Test our design if it sticks in the corner of the table and hardens after 3 min. We will also test out the measurements at this stage.

Why?        What are the measurements?

Testing is very important because that way we could see if it is a success. Our three major tests are a 3min test, bouncy test, Different Shape Test described at the bottom of this blog post.

3rd we will…

If from the 2nd stage is a success! Now we will find unique characteristics and identify why are our polymers different from others!

Why?

Stage two has to be successful before this stage because that way we could test accurately. At this stage, we will test the uniqueness of our polymer. How stiff it could be, and how safe it is.

4th we will…

We will make an advertising video to sell our products. This is needed so that our prototype will interest our customers.

Why?

Advertising is very important because that way we could sell our products and show it to customers so that in real life we could show our creative ideas.

Our Method for Testing our Prototype: How we’ll test it to see if it works

 Method Why we chose this/How this will be effective Wait for 3 minutes and test if it hardens or not. We chose this because one of our main purpose of making this is having a polymer that could change its shape at first but harden so that it will stay in one place. Bounce it on the table. We think this is another effective method to test because if the polymer we made is too hard or doesn’t bounce as well, there is no way that we are going to get a safe polymer. Change the polymer’s shape by testing on to different types of tables. This is needed and essential because without this being tested, there is no way that we could suggest that our polymer will fit the table’s shape. We will have a roundtable and a sharp table to test out.

Journal Entry #2- Science

Journal #2

Our Goal:

The goal of our polymer project is to …

Build a polymer that will influence the real world related to furniture. Building a polymer to keep customers safe from dangerous table corners.

Target Market Audience

 Some Examples:   Adults Parents with small kids Elderly Kids Teens Boys/Girls Teachers/Businessmen/Shop Owners Pet Owners Travelers Target Market Audience How will this help them? Target Market Audience #1: Adults Some adults unintentionally hit their legs and scratch their arms by the table corner. This happens a lot of times and sometimes cannot go out to work because of this injury. That is why this is needed for them. Keeps safe from harmful materials reduces the number of times they have to get injured because of a sharp edge. Possible Target Market Audience #2: Parents with small kids *just in case you have more than one target market audience Home usage for safety. Since this is for children that could get injured by getting hit on the table corners. If adults would buy this they would have a safe house. Blocks unintentional harms, scratches, safe at home while playing. Soft polymer able to keep out from danger. More than 50% of furniture harms comes from small kids. This will not only let adults get afraid that also lets kids get frightened of table corners.

Describing Our Polymer

We want the Physical Properties to include:

• Sticky, not stringy
• Soft
• Colorful
• Feels very rubbery
• Comes out very well

Polymer Characteristics We Are Looking For

*Gloop, Super Slime, Stretch-tactic Slime, Oobleck

 Polymer Characteristics Why this is important Super Slime Very bouncy, but rubbery, not as slimy Hardens very well, making the polymer stay on the edge where it is supposed to be. In order to take the very bouncy part off, we have to see the monomers. Gloop Very sticky but still bouncy. Sticky so it could keep out from danger very stiff, making an “airbag” function so it is bouncy. Oobleck Very sticky but not that bouncy. More stickiness so it doesn’t move. Making it not bouncy on the sides so it doesn’t fall out of the table. This will eventually make it not fall off and not a stringy polymer.

WHY IS OUR POLYMER DIFFERENT FROM PREVIOUS DESIGNS?

Our Polymer is different because it is very bouncy and could change its shape according to the edge of the table. It always fits and will stick very easily.  It could also stretch which could also fit the size of the table. Through identifying polymerization and monomers we could take out materials that are sticky. After we go through polymerization we could see that a great polymer has formed. However, in the middle we want it to be bouncy because that way it will keep the kids safe. This is unique because at the outer part we want it to be a very sticky material but in the middle, it has to be bouncy.

Our Plan to Develop our Prototype

*Prototype = sample or model

1st we will…

First, we will design a product according to the characteristics we want. This will include identifying the monomers and how polymerization works throughout the process. We have to use 7ml of Borax, 15ml of PVA and 3 ml of Glue with 4ml of water.

2nd we will…

Second, we will create our design this is simple but important because we have to design following the materials that show a characteristic of what we want.

3rd we will

Third, we will test our experiment to see whether we meet the criteria we want it to have. Testing is important because if this is a fail it will make the design useless and we are doing this so that we could see if we sell our design it will be useful. After 3 min it has to harden but still stick.

Finally, we will

Added materials. What is it going to be like?

Our Method for Testing our Prototype: How we’ll test it to see if it works

 Method Why we chose this/How this will be effective Don’t touch it after sticking on the table This is effective because it will show us how strong it is and whether it will stay in one position or not. See if it holds for at least 3 min. Measure the time it takes to touch the table. If the time is too short it will mean that the polymer is too stringy making it useless because it will stay on the ground and just a little bit will be on the table. We want it to be at least 2 min 10 sec because, at that time, Gloop did bounce but stick as well. Bounce it on the table If we bounce it we could see if the polymer sticks or not. If it sticks, it is a success because we want it to not move or fall out. We will have a success if it will stick but bounce about 2 cm.

Sources I used:

 haven888, et al. “10x Child BABY Safe Silicone Protector Table Corner Edge Protection Cover Best 701828484057.” EBay, 7 Nov. 2017, www.ebay.com/itm/-/323132940167?roken=cUgayN.

Journal #1 Post-Science

Journal #1

Polymers are a big chunk of molecules bonded together with polymerization. In this particular case when making a plastic, there would be an oil molecule which is a monomer and polythene which is also a monomer. In this post, you will learn about what is a synthetic and natural polymer and the information both detailed and general about polymers. A lot of expert’s information is contained in this blog post.

Synthetic VS. Natural

 What are synthetic materials? A synthetic material is when materials are combined to make one big molecule. Polymers are also synthetic materials that are made with series of plastic molecules.   Give 2 examples of synthetic materials.   Plastic Bag and Spandex Spandex is an artificial clothing used which really sticks to your body. What are natural resources? Natural resources are materials that aren’t artificial and of nature. Mr. Todd from Thought Co. it is sure that 100% of synthetic polymers contain at least 40% of natural resources.   Give 2 examples of natural resources. Water, Stone Water is a natural resource which is not artificial.

Polymers and Where They Come From

What is a polymer?

A polymer is a material that is made of a long repeating chain of molecules. This has unique properties which depend on what chemicals are bonded.  The type of polymer changes depending on what type of molecules are bonded to each other. This is a molecule that is made by bonding series of smaller blocks. Polymer comes from Greek word many parts. Each of those parts is a monomer. Usually, it is classified as natural and synthetic. Some could be flexible, some could be hard, usually made out of carbon.  According to Life Science and American Chemistry Society, 70% of what we use in the world are polymers. We use it even without knowing.

100 of monomers chained to make a polymer.

Give 2 examples of synthetic polymers and the natural resources they come from

 Synthetic Polymer #1 Silicone What natural resources does this come from? This comes from Siloxane, Polyester, Oil. Oil is used because of carbon. According to American Chemistry Council, almost every polymer has to contain carbon so that it could bond with other materials. Polyester is used so that it doesn’t shrink and protects from rain. Other materials such as Nylon absorbs only 3.4% of water and could let the bag shrink by  5 inches. What would we use this synthetic material for? Silicone could be used when making computer chips. We could also have transistors because silicone is a material that connects and is also stretchy. The little spots are silicones that are used in computer chips. Synthetic Polymer #2 Plastic What natural resources does this come from? Oil and Polythene are used to make one plastic. About 3.5 tons of carbon dioxide is in a ton of plastic bags. Oil has carbon and is a raw material. This means that it could bond with other materials easily. Polythene is used for packaging. About 1 million barrels of oil is used in Plastic Container and 31% of polythene is used. Polythene is used as a cover of plastics. What would we use this synthetic material for? The synthetic material used to make a plastic.    We could use these materials for plastic bags, toys, water bottles, plastic containers.

Chemical Reactions

How do natural resources go through a chemical reaction to become synthetic materials?

Natural resources act as a monomer for a synthetic material. So, these monomers will chemically bond together to make a synthetic material. This process is called polymerization. Polymerization is the process of monomers bonding together. Therefore, for a plastic molecule of oil and polythene would be bonding together making one big molecule, a plastic. 87% of the synthetics polymers are pure plastics and used around the world.

What is a monomer?

Monomer comes from the Greek word, one part. It is the basis of a polymerization to happen. When there isn’t a monomer there won’t be a polymer. Monomers are usually natural resources and even some of them are made out of series of monomers. Some monomers are oil. Oil is also a natural resource which gives us an evidence that natural resources are usually monomers. 97% of monomers contain carbon and this is used for bonding. Some of them contain oxygen to do the same function. It is important for the monomers able to bond themselves so 100 monomers will go through polymerization build as a polymer. Without monomers, polymers could never be formed.

What is polymerization?

Polymerization is a method of making synthetic polymers by bonding small molecules into a chain. In this bonding, chemical reactions happen and they hold the bond of small molecules, also known as monomers, which gives us a result of a polymer. Which means that it is a process of making a polymer. The chain of bonded molecules is called macromolecules. Usually having a carbon atom. According to Mr. Perkins, every polymer has to go through the process of polymerization and without it, a polymer wouldn’t be formed. 100% of polymers need to go through polymerization so they could become a polymer.

Through polymerization, monomers become bonded making a polymer.

Sources I used:

 https://www.livescience.com/60682-polymers.html Bradford, Alina. “What Is a Polymer?” Live Science, Live Science Contributor, 13 Oct. 2017, 09:52, www.livescience.com/60682-polymers.html. https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/explainer-what-are-polymers Perkins, Sid. “Explainer: What Are Polymers?” Science News for Students, 13 Oct. 2017, www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/explainer-what-are-polymers. https://plastics.americanchemistry.com/plastics/The-Basics/ Chemistry , American. “Plastics.” The Basics: Polymer Definition and Properties, plastics.americanchemistry.com/plastics/The-Basics/. http://pslc.ws/macrog/kidsmac/differnt.htm Lemer, Paul. “ Polymer Science Learning Center.” What Is a Polymer?, Polymer Science Learning Center , 2018, pslc.ws/macrog/kidsmac/basics.htm. http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter6/lesson12 Galvan, Patti. “Natural Resources & Synthetic Materials.” Natural Resources & Synthetic Materials | Chapter 6: Chemical Change | Middle School Chemistry, American Chemistry Society, 2017, www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter6/lesson12. https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-polymer-820536 Johnson, Todd. “What Exactly Is a Polymer?” What Is A Polymer, ThoughtCo., 26 Mar. 2017, www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-polymer-820536. https://sehsc.americanchemistry.com/sehsc/Silicone-Uses/ Chemistry , American Council. “Silicones Environmental, Health, and Safety Center.” Silicone Uses, American Chemistry Council, sehsc.americanchemistry.com/sehsc/Silicone-Uses/.

Revolutionary Voices Journal- The Bloody French Revolution!

Fight, Blood, and death with the Guillotine. In this post, you will be able to find out the first-person view of a French Revolution. In the past few weeks, we were working on our revolutionary voices! We learned, investigated, and felt through our characters. I wrote a journal of a peasant in French Revolution, trying to show the perspective of the peasants. More importantly, I did this to give readers knowledge of the French Revolution. There are 3 turning points in all bloody situation. I learned that revolution doesn’t just take in a year, it takes a lot of time to complete a revolution. Revolution causes many different casualties and with that, a new government has formed.

NonFiction Blog Task #1 – Courage, Has No Color

Segregation happens all the time. Even though we don’t intend segregation, we always do it. In the past, people segregated others by skin color. Cool jobs were for whites, blacks or negroes were considered as weak. Negros worked in dirty places which my them dirty and were not allowed to be paratroopers until the Triple Nickles came. It was the time of World War II. When Roger Walden, a black soldier, a black worker for the country, the segregation between skin colors were almost out of the way.

In the nonfiction book Courage Has No Color by Tanya Lee Stone, blacks were treated poorly, and at the end becoming a man with rights, having the right to be a labor like the whites. Thus, it is a book talking about how blacks were treated at that time even though they had a job and giving us different extreme languages. This book lets the readers realize how discrimination is a serious worldwide issue.  As I read the book, I was able to observe Tanya Lee Stone wanted to tell us the lives of and as Negros. Giving us the theme, “Blacks should be treated equally, not getting segregated, making a colorless society.” This is because in this book in general, people were decimating blacks just because of the skin color. The judgment of they will not be able to anything was because of skin color nothing else.

Whenever blacks were going in the war they always thought America as their country and they were the ones who should fight for the country. However, whites always kept disagreeing with this. This could be another theme of this story. Blacks treated unequally, however they still thought America, where they are getting segregated, as they believed America is their home country. “You volunteered to fight for a country that lynches young people.” (Stone 55). This was said by a German officer and it is clearly a very aggressive quote to the blacks because the word lynches by itself is to kill with or without a legal trial. This means blacks do not deserve rights and therefore shouldn’t be deserving any rights at that time and the future as well. However, even though the German officer said this quote Smith the African American clearly stated proudly, “I am black American. It is my home. I will fight for it because I have no other hoe, and by fighting for it, I can make America better.” (Stone 55). While they get discriminated because they know their only country is America they care about it and fight for it. The problem is that African Americans are never getting respect from the whites.

This problem was a huge problem and conflict that was needed to be solved in the past. However, now it is known as a huge achievement that the society has achieved. Today, there are still problems about this topic, however, there is no more segregation between blacks and whites in jobs, which also means that the society internationally now treats every person’s rights equally and fairly. One example could be the start of the Triple Nickles. These people who are black were always treated poorly, however, thanks to the Triple Nickles, now the people in America are equal in jobs. Now that they are equal, people do not care who is sacrificing for their country and help the country to survive. For example, “This is my country; this is my duty regardless of the social climate; regardless of the faults.” (Stone 93) This quote is suggesting that blacks are now thinking it is meant to represent their country and fight for the country. This shows how the attitude towards blacks became different. Adding on top of that, the way generals interpreted blacks were different. General MacArthur once said, “No one should be negroes, whites are the ones to fight for honor.” Interestingly, this general has used the word negroes, it is a way to say blacks. It is one of the ways to segregate blacks from humans. However, later on, he said, “I don’t want color, I want freedom and justice for all colors.” Ironically, he has stated the opposite of what he has said first. Clearly, now he has found out that the blacks are also as good as whites, they deserve human rights. In the period where WWII was happening, it was almost impossible for blacks to deserve any kinds of rights the whites deserved and many “haters and racists” (Stone 55) wanted to discriminate blacks on purpose just because their skin color was often known as “disgusting” (Stone 14).

This theme is also reused in chapter nine as a whole and especially for the second subtitle of that chapter. The subtitle reads A Two-Colored Army. Two-Colored in this is used to show equality. Thus Biggs, one of the Triple Nickles, suggests that the “Army had been a two-colored Army for a long time, just as our society.” (Stone 97). Once again, the theme of this book was having equality in jobs, and especially not discriminating anyone to lead to a happier, safer society. This quote makes the theme fairly obvious because the Army was not privileged for a long time but it is now and so as the society. Though there were some problems that still present, it is sure that the blacks were feeling more satisfied with the society and how they are getting treated. They were “glad that segregation was leaving Army.” (Stone 98) This shows how happy they were about the situation of discrimination started to decrease.

However, the book also shows the as soon as black Americans got power their and start to be impolite to the Whites. Blacks were starting to be ruling over the whites too much and starting to say, “Your race is looking forward to your success.” This statement clearly shows that now blacks have rights and weakened the white Americans, they are thinking that they get to rule over the whites. Of course, this is not supposed to happen and should not happen.

In conclusion, the main theme of this non-fiction book is, everybody has to be feeling privileged, free to speak and get the same right as the others. The people who don’t treat equally should be treated equally and no one should go on top of each other to rule someone over. As for Walter Morris, the ninety-year-old man, who was the person who saw the Triple Nickles say, “We overcame. And it’s a warm feeling to know that, that color has nothing to do with it. One’s spirit. And that should be a lesson for us. We should have, and we will have, a colorless society one day.” (Stone 114) This is the quote from the main theme of this story. Now, we have to think about this question. We said we need a colorless society. However, do we actually treat everyone equally and completely not segregate people? Or do we still do it intentionally? We always have to remember that segregation doesn’t make anyone gain happiness, it just gives harm to the others and to yourself. To wrap up, segregation should not happen, so as ruling someone else.

Bibliography

Stone, Tanya Lee. Courage Has No Color: The True Story of the Triple Nickles: America’s First Black Paratroopers. Candlewick Press, 2013.

Rothstein, Richard. “America Is Still Segregated. We Need to Be Honest about Why | Richard Rothstein.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 16 May 2017, www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/may/16/segregation-us-neighborhoods-reasons.

“8 Ways to Prevent Discrimination in Your Workplace.” Health & Safety Handbook, 29 Jan. 2018, www.healthandsafetyhandbook.com.au/8-ways-to-prevent-discrimination-in-your-workplace/.

Gonzalez, Kris. “Triple Nickles Recall Days of Segregated Army.” U.S. Army, February 18, 2010

McGuire, Phillip. He, Too, Spoke for Democracy: Fudge Hastie, World War II, and the Black Soldier. New York: Greenwood, 1988

“Army Honors Triple Nickles Legacy at Pentagon Ceremony.” States News Service, March 30, 2010.

“Awosika Mary. “Jumping toward Equality.” Sarsota Herald Tribune, February 2, 2006.

Independent Reading Post #3- 1984 by George Orwell

The book I chose this time is 1984 by George Orwell. For my project, I chose to do a fake Facebook for Winston Smith focusing on the resolution. In the world of 1984, everybody is looked by the telescreen used by Thought Police. In other words, you don’t have any security for any person. Looking at the telescreen, they could catch every word, motion, and feelings that you express. If you get caught by doing something violating the rule you will get caught and sent to jail like Winston, the protagonist of the book. Also, Winston didn’t think he violated the rule and thought he it was the right thing to do. However, it turns out the rule he violated is writing a diary about the world in his perspective. When writing his diary, he also had an affair with Julia. To get some help to write some detailed information, he meets a person called O’Brien. Someone who you would call a fake friend. So, at the resolution, he figures out he turns out to be a member of the Thought Police. Which results from Winston to have a very unhappy ending. Eventually, he goes to jail because he violated the rule and O’Brien saw it. Winston was stuck in jail looking outside until there was his called Room 101. At this point of the story, you could say this is the climax part of the resolution. He goes in, and of course, gets tortured in front of O’Brien. The harshest punishment is the rat torture. They put a rat one the one end and the other is your face. The officer will put fire on the other side and the rat would try to go inside your head. So, what Winston did is he told the officer that he would sacrifice Julia to get tortured instead of him. He was lead out and the story ends as Big Brother watching Winston and controlling him. Thus, Winston finished his affair with Julia at this part.

My fake Facebook relates to a person called Winston Smith which went through many different conflicts with an unhappy mood. The main part of this blog post I focused on is resolution. This book ended with a sad ending unlike the other stories. However, it could also mean that we have to be careful about making this kind of society. I believe that the author was thinking about what the future society will like be using Winston as the character going through the story.

Bibliography

Jeon, Justin HyoJun. “FAKEBOOK from ClassTools.net.” Winston Smith on ‘Fakebook’, Classtools.net, 14 Nov. 2017, www.classtools.net/FB/1133-VCzKYy.

Orwell, George. 1984. Publisher Not Identified, 2016.

If you want to know see how some countries are using Thought Control harshly, click here.