Grey Skies – Informational Documentary on Pollution

My focus was on the effects of air pollution. This video serves as information to the public on what air pollution can do to you and what the government is doing about it. When I first started, I thought that no matter what, all types of air pollution are equally bad, but as I started to research, I realized that there are different chemicals yielding different effects on the body and I’ve become more aware of what is going on outside when I start to get headaches or sore throats. If I were to do this project again, I would try a new type of video, like a cinematic or a stop-motion video. If I were to give advice to a 7th grader moving up to 8th grade on the Capstone Project, I would say that you should work as hard as you can to get the things done or they will pile up. Research a lot and try to as concise as you can when making the video.

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Parabo-lems with Catapults




The goal of this project was to create a functional and aesthetically pleasing catapult and graph a projectile’s flight path. Using that data, we would have to accurately launch and hit targets.

The most important thing I learned in this project is generating and applying quadratic functions to real life. This would definitely serve as a basis for future learning in High School. The most challenging part of this project was the repairing and usage of the catapult. It constantly broke and we had to make last minute repairs during the testing of the catapult. Next time, we should stick to a more traditional design for our catapults, as this one presented too many variables because of its usage of a ramp and the launcher. As stated before, this helped me apply quadratic functions to real life, thus helping me in my understanding of quadratic functions by showing me real representations of coordinates that would otherwise be on a graph.

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Polymer Design Journal #4

Prototype Observations

Prototype Observations Strengths for this Prototype Limitations for this Prototype
1 Stayed fluffy when heated


Was sticky

Flattened out on surfaces

Did not solidify when heated


2 Became sticky and viscus when heated Flattened out on surfaces Did not solidify when heated


Hard to use (too sticky)

3 Clumped into a single mass

Emitted an odor



Made a weird smell

Took too long to solidify

End Results

Prototype #3, called Seal Slime, was most effective for meeting our goal because it fulfilled all criteria for this slime to be called a success. Unlike previous designs, Prototype #3 was able to solidify when heated, sticky and was able to fit evenly into surfaces. It could stick on to walls without support and with a bit of molding, could fit evenly into cracks and seal them shut. It was also good that when Seal Slime was heated, it clumped into one big piece, making it easier to pull out of the beaker in one go. Though it was able to complete three of its main goals, if we had more time, we would have eradicated that horrible smell that it seemed to put out and made it so that Seal Slime would take less time to solidify because it took about 3 minutes of heating before it started to clump together.

Final Procedure

  1. Pour 10ml of liquid starch into a beaker
  2. Pour 10ml of PVA into the beaker
  3. Add 20ml of cornstarch
  4. Mix till jelly-like
  5. Add 10ml of water
  6. Mix thoroughly
  7. Heat for 3 minutes
  8. Cool down polymer till 35°C
  9. Apply to surface
  10. Wait 12 hours


The process was challenging, yet fun. It was a little hectic with everyone running around to get their materials at the same time as you trying to mix a polymer. It was challenging trying to find the error in our prototypes because it would always lead us to even bigger errors and the cycle would repeat itself. My partner and I just had to try to experiment a little and see what worked and knock out what didn’t. I learned that sometimes you have to experiment a little and explore and build upon what you observe.


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Polymer Design Journal #3

How to make Seal Slime


PVA & Glue

Liquid Starch

Guar gum


  1. Pour 16.5g of glue into a cup
  2. Pour 10 ml of liquid starch into a cup
  3. Add 20ml of water into a cup
  4. Add 1g of Guar Gum
  5. Mix thoroughly


The results were proved negative. The polymer fulfilled two out of the three characteristics. Though it was sticky and able to flatten out on surfaces, we were not able to have it solidify when heated. We think this is due to the fluffiness of the polymer. When it traps air in it, the air heats up too and burns the surrounding polymer, thus the burnt residue on the bottom. Next time, we need to add less liquid starch and more glue.

Polymer Design Journal #2

My plan for my Polymer is when it is it heated, it would be able to seal cracks.

This would be for people who are mechanics that need to seal a crack in a pipe instead of having to replace it altogether.

So far, some good characteristics that have been observed from previous slimes are the ability to spread evenly on a flat space (Boogers) and the ability to stretch long distances (Boogers). We have yet to test the ability to harden under certain temperatures, but we would most likely test Boogers, seeing that most characteristics from said slime match our criteria.

Polymer Design Journal #1

What are Polymers?

When monomers (usually organic molecules, like coal, petroleum and other things of the sort) chain up through a chemical reaction (polymerization), the end result is a polymer. Things like nylon, used as a silk substitute, and Teflon, found on pots and pans, are all the result of monomers chaining up to become a polymer.

Synthetic Polymers

Synthetic polymers are the result of monomers that are almost the same as it’s natural counterpart but were created in a lab. Examples of these are nylon and Teflon.

Natural Polymers

Natural polymers are the result of natural monomers linking up to create natural polymers found in nature. Examples of this are silk and DNA.


“Top 3 Commercial Uses for Nylon – Craftech Industries – High-Performance Plastics – (518) 828-5001.” Craftech Industries, 7 Apr. 2017,

“Polytetrafluoroethylene.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Apr. 2018,

“Natural vs. Synthetic” PBS, WGBH Educational Foundation, n.d,

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Pollution Multiplication

A whale that had died due to pollution consumption beached.

So far, my question is a work in progress (as is everyone’s question) and I decided to focus my topic on SDG 13-15:

How would an average person’s life be affected if the water, waste and air pollution multiplied by [x] amount of times

As you can see, an [x] replaces the number of times the overall pollution would be multiplied by. This is because my plan is to find the current population’s contribution to overall pollution (expressed as CP) and find a study on how much the human population will multiply over the years. Then I would multiply the CP by the amount that the human population was multiplied (expressed as CPM) by and replace [x] with CPM.

However, I fear that I will not be able to get the adequate information needed and find evidence to support my claims. Nonetheless, I hope to gain insight into where the human population is heading in terms of pollution and how it would affect the average person and hope people will understand the immediate attention this issue of pollution needs to be given. I would like to know how I could improve my question and make it less vague.


“Giant ‘Dead Whale’ Is Haunting Reminder of Massive Plastic Pollution Problem.” Expand Your Consciousness, 5 Feb. 2018,

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Freedom to America!

Alroy was born on May 2, 1754. His father, Patrick Carr, shot dead. Ever since the Boston Massacre, he’d been wanting to avenge him, yet is held back by the thought of death. In the crossfire of the American Revolution, this patriot shares a live account of the events of the war that freed America.

With the ordination of the Declaration of Independence and other revolutionary documents, change was imminent in the American world. For one thing, Britain no longer owns the colonies and the United States was established as an independent nation. Another is that America is not a classic monarchy, but a democratic republic. A leader does not stay in his position for life but stands at the head of the government with the title president. In addition, people got to vote for who ran the country, unlike the traditional royal family system.

Change was prominent in the war that freed America; nonetheless, there were still things that stayed constant. A major constant is that there are still white people that run the government, no people of color. Staying on the subject of people of color, African American slaves were still present in American society. Though the Declaration of Independence stated that “all men are created equal”, women and slaves still did not have the right to vote until later in America’s history and wealthy landowners still dominated politics. Finally, though taxes are what provoked the Americans, taxes were, and still are, present.

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We Want Independence!

Humans have never liked to be suppressed by other people and when a tiny island across the Atlantic Ocean begins to shovel taxes onto 13 colonies, things get a little rebellious.

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The Universe in Contrast

Since the beginning of history, humans have admired the beauty of the cosmos. They would stare up in awe at the splash of colors and dots of light that is the Milky Way. Little did they know, worlds were being ripped apart, planets are being bombarded and suns are exploding into life, all in a single, beautiful universe. The universe is a beautiful yet unexpected place and in the non-fiction book Stars, Planets and Galaxies, by David Aguilar, that is the most prominent central idea that the book revolves around. The moon’s dark past, supernovae creating new stars and the unlikelihood of life all tie back to the central idea.

The moon may seem like a beautiful ball in the sky; however, it’s dark past says otherwise. The terrain of the moon can vary from place to place on but the names of some terrain can invoke different feelings, for example, “… the relatively smooth lowlands called ‘maria,’ from mare, the Latin word for sea.” (Aguilar 83). The Latin people observed the moon as something beautiful, even naming the terrain of it as a sea, which gives a connotation of a calm place. Though people thought that the Moon was a very peaceful place, it’s past makes it evident that that is not the case. To truly understand how chaotic the moon is, one must look at what the moon was instead of what it is now. The moon was created when a huge mars-sized asteroid slammed into the earth, ripping a chunk out of the earth and sending that debris into orbit. That level of entropy was sustained through the course of the moon’s creation: “…the Moon’s terrain was smoothed by the lava flows…scarred with impact craters a hundred miles in diameter.” (Aguilar 83). The moon was once very active and was an inhospitable place with lava spewing from volcanoes and packed with hundreds of meteorites creating large craters on the moon. Its history clearly contradicts the peaceful and tranquil feeling that the moon usually gives especially when lava and meteorites were constantly battering the surface and creating intense heat. The sight of the moon often invokes emotions of serenity and equanimity but upon further inspection, this is clearly not the case which is a very good example of how the universe can be beautiful upon first sight but can be quite unexpected.

This is actually a galaxy. Messier 82 is in front of the white spray in the background. Its the red thing.

Messier 82 (also known as the Cigar Nebula) is a supernova remnant. The vast scale of this nebula shows how powerful the ejection force of a supernova is.

Supernovae are thought to be the most intense, violent and occurrences in the universe, but little do people know, it can give birth to beautiful things A supernova is caused when a huge star, much larger than our sun, is at the end of its life. The star would be so large, that gravity would give way and the star would crush itself, leading to a massive explosion and “the explosion and radiation given off from such an explosion would sterilize any planet… leaving behind a dead world.” (Aguilar 107). The amount of damage and destruction caused by supernovae is unfathomable and leads to a total annihilation of anything that is near its proximity. The effects of a nuclear bomb are completely insignificant to that of a supernova, which is why a supernova is thought to be an extremely violent phenomenon in the universe. The sheer violence caused by this unimaginable implosion of a huge, collapsing star can lead to devastating effects in the short term; however, this can lead to the birth of new stars. When a star explodes, it sends shockwaves throughout the universe, and sometimes these shockwaves can result in the creation of stars: “The blast wave of a supernova can rip apart nebulas, but a supernova shock wave can also help new stars form.” (Aguilar 108). Gas and dust would start to clump together more due to the fact that the shockwave from the supernova pushed them closer together, making it easier for gravity to pull in and ignite a new star. This shows that although supernovae have the capability to decimate worlds, they also have the capability to create beautiful stars in the night sky. Supernovae are very unexpected occurrences in the universe. The last one recorded was in 2014. When a supernova does occur, destruction is sure to follow. Though these unpredictable and unexpected events do easily eradicate planets, they still have the capability to create beautiful things in the universe.

Earth is flourishing with diverse life; however, because the conditions for life have to be so specific, the likelihood of that happening in the universe was considerably low. The complex lifeforms on Earth come in many different forms, and the variety of organisms present on Earth is astonishing: “The diversity and distribution on Earth is staggering. From amoebas to elephants, electric eels to butterflies, scientists have yet to catalog all of the species of life existing here on our planet.” (Aguilar 80). The different types of creatures and microbes all living on Earth are astounding and all created by the perfect conditions and qualities that our planet possesses. The natural beauty and the diversity of the species that call Earth their home is surprising and the fact that humans have not completely cataloged all of the species on Earth really puts into perspective how much species there are. All the beauty that came from the blooming planet we call home was a result of a few specifications in orbit and in location, which really sets apart the deep blue and lively planets and barren and lifeless ones. To create a perfect condition for life to begin, a planet must have very specific qualities for life to occur, for example, “To begin with, Earth is in the right orbit…we orbit the right kind of star…Earth is also the right size…Earth is located out in an arm of the Milky Way…” (Aguilar 150). For a planet to be labeled as habitable, all of these factors come into play. Earth was only able to be habitable if these perfect conditions were met, or else the Earth would be a lifeless rock floating around a sun. The Earth had to be the perfect distance around the sun or else it would be too hot or too cold, the star had to be the perfect type (a medium-sized star), and it had to be in the perfect location around the galaxy (not too close to the center), where a lot of collisions happen. The unpredictability of the formation of Earth, the capability of harboring life and the beauty that followed truly shows how the universe can be very unpredictable and yet beautiful by the complex life created, and the unlikelihood of it ever appearing.

The universe is full of many beautiful, yet very unforeseen occurrences. From the entropy-fueled past of the moon to the creation of new stars through supernovae, all the way to the unlikelihood of life, the universe never fails to generate new beauteous structures that were never thought possible.


“File:M82 HST ACS 2006-14-a-Large Web.jpg.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Mar. 2018,

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