Where in our solar system should NASA focus future missions?

Based on the two newsela articles that I read, I believe that NASA should focus there future missions on Jupiters moon (Europa) and a small iced over ocean world ,Enceladus, which is orbiting Saturn. I believe that NASA should focus there missions on Europa because “Scientists suspect that warm, liquid water lives under Europa’s thick ice shell, making the moon one of NASA’s “top candidates” for life in the solar system somewhere other than Earth.” (Agence France-Presse, Newsela, 05/24/18) This means that Europa is one of the top candidates for life on a planet in our solar system, so that is why NASA should focus a mission on going to Europa to perform further research. I also believe that NASA should focus on Enceladus because, first of all, there is a lot of hydrogen on Enceladus which is a good sign of life. “When scientists find a lot of hydrogen, it is a good sign for life.” (By Associated Press, Newsela, 04/17/2017).

Live Edge Wax River Table

For One Day my partner Daniel and I made a live edge wax river table. During the building process we ran into a few challenges. One of the challenges was pouring the wax into our river mold, this was challenging because we could not get the wax where we wanted it to go and there was also some bumps in the wax which were hard to get out. Another difficulty was attaching our table legs to our table because the wood was warped. Our greatest success was routing the table, this was successful because our river outline came out very well. One thing that we would do differently would be to pick a piece of wood that was less warped or had no warp.

 

 

 

 

One Day Blog Post: Sam and Daniel

We are making a crayon river table. We will first need to cut a river shape into the wood using a router, then we will place different colored crayons into the river, which will be 1cm deep, and then melt the crayons in it. While the crayons are drying we will cut our table legs off the side of the wood which will be 29.5 cm. The dimensions of this crayon river table is a height of 179.5 cm, a width of 28.7 cm, and a thickness of 2.4 cm. After we cut the legs we will screw them onto the ends of the table and then put a finish over the wood.

 

How Big Is Our Universe?

Ever since I was a little kid i have been amazed with how big our universe is. Our universe is huge and everything in it is also huge. In our solar system the distances between the planets are light years away. Just the distance from the sun to the Earth is 150,000,000 km. Our planet, Earth, is 12,800 km in diameter and Jupiter is 142,800 km in diameter, which is absolutely enormous! In science class we did a walking activity, where we had to measure and walk the distances in-between the planets at a certain scale factor, and we walked thousands of meters.

Microplastics

Every year there is at least 8 million tons of plastic being dumped into our ocean! That’s equivalent to dumping a whole garbage truck worth of plastic into our ocean every minute in a year. Microplastics are caused by the breakdown of bigger pieces of plastic when they end up in the ocean. The sources that I used to research this current event was Newsela, Live Science, and the New York Times. The cause of this event is us, humans, we have been overusing and misusing plastic.  Microplastic pollution is happening right now in this world and most of the plastic that we use every single day is ending up in the ocean.

I think that microplastics are horrendous for our environment and we really need to cut down on the amount of plastics that are being used. Certain types of clothing have a lot of plastic, including outdoor gear, leggings, fleeces and jumpers. They are often made from acrylic and polyester, polyamide, spandex and nylon, and shed up to 700,000 microfibers with each wash. Once in water, microfibers are difficult to remove. These fibers are being found in tap water in many countries. In the U.S., 94 percent of water samples tested contained microfibers. (George and McKay, Newsela). This quote goes to show how we are being affected by our own actions. I think that the way we are trying to handle the problem with microplastics is good. However, many humans do not realize the risks if they keep on using plastic. I would suggest that we try to spread the word about how plastic is affecting our environment and convince people that they need to make a change. This current event matters because it is destroying our planet and ecosystem and if we don’t do something about it, it is going to destroy our one and only Earth.

Questions to consider
What do you guys think we should do to reduce the amount of plastic being used?
How do you think this going to effect our planet if we don’t do anything about it?

Citations
1. Rettner, Rachael. “Microplastics Are Everywhere – and That Likely Includes Your Poop.” LiveScience, LiveScience, 22 Oct. 2018, www.livescience.com/63893-microplastics-poop.html.
2. Schneiderman, Jill. “The Scourge of Microplastics.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 7 Mar. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/03/07/opinion/microplastics.html.
3. George, Sharon, and Deirdre McKay. “Ten ‘Stealth Microplastics’ to Avoid If You Want to Save the Oceans.” Newsela | No Legs, No Problem for Alabama Teenage Wrestler Who Went 37-0, Newsela, 9 Apr. 2018, newsela.com/read/lib-convo-micro-plastics-ocean/id/41844/.

Thinglink The Boxer Rebellion.

Based on the information from our field trip I would say that the boxer rebellion does not deserve a bad rap. I say this because the boxers were simply just defending their country and people from foreign powers.

My New Avatar!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

This is my new avatar. I chose the baseball uniform because i like baseball. I picked a random hair style. I like chickens so i picked a chicken. The hair on this avatar has shiny black hair like mine. He is wearing a blue shirt underneath because my favorite color is blue.

Book Cover for Where the Red Fern Grows

Where The Red Fern Grows by Wilson Rawls is an amazing story of two dogs called Little Ann and Old Dan and one boy named Billy. Little Ann and Old Dan love to go hunting for raccoons.  Billy and his family don’t have much money so Billy had to work hard to get his two dogs. “It was the voice of Old Dan. Little Ann had opened the hole up enough with her digging so his voice could be heard faintly.” page 107. That quote proves that billy has two dogs one called Little Ann and the other called Old Dan. “Billy, those kinds of dogs cost money, and thats something we don’t have right now.” Page 8. This quote proves my inference that Billy’s family doesn’t have much money. “As the days passed, the dog-wanting disease grew worse. I began to see dogs in my sleep.” Page 9. This quote shows how much Billy wanted those dogs. “A year passed. I was over the halfway mark. I had twenty-seven dollars and forty-six cents. My spirits soared. I worked harder. Another year crawled slowly by, and then the great day came. The long grind was over. I had it my fifty dollars! I cried as I counted it over and over.” This quote proves that Billy was determined to get those dogs, and that he had to work for the money all by himself.

I chose to use that background of a dog and a raccoon because it shows a hound dog just like Billy had and it also shows a raccoon which is what Billy, Little Ann, and Old Dan mainly hunted for. I chose to use that font because it looks kind of old but it also looks like the font you would see on a realistic-fiction/action/adventure book which is what this books genre is. I chose to put that quote on the book cover because it shows how much Billy loved Little Ann and Old Dan and it shows that by saying “I also buried a part of my life along with my dog.”

Science

Protein Story Project.

What is a protein and how does it relate to traits? Proteins are the structures made from amino acids that are key to functioning in all cells of the body. The DNA sequence of a gene holds the instructions or code to build a protein. Genes contain the genetic information that codes for the proteins that express your traits.

I chose the protein called DNA Polymerase which is known as the builder so I am going to give DNA polymerase the name of ‘Bob the Builder!” Bob the Builder is an enzyme that replicates DNA molecules to actually build a new strand of DNA. Primase, which is known as the initializer, or primer guides Bob the Builder and shows him where to start work. The piece of DNA that Bob the Builder makes is actually a piece of RNA called Ligase which helps glue the DNA fragments together. Bob the Builder (e.g. DNA Polymerase) is the important enzyme that adds DNA bases!

How does DNA code for a protein?

The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (e.g. DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (e.g. amino acid sequences) by living cells.

Here are the steps involved:

DNA =>RNA=>Protein

Replication
Transcription
Translation

The DNA remains in the cell nucleus but the production of the protein occurs in the cytoplasm. This requires the help of mRNA. DNA has the code for a protein which mRNA has to copy and then take that copy out of the nucleus to another organelle called a ribosome. There the copy is translated into the protein.

There are three types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.(ribosomal).

Another way to describe this process is to compare it to KFC. The recipe (e.g. DNA) is a secret which is protected in a safe but in order to sell chicken, the KFC’s all over the world need to make chicken (e.g. proteins) in each KFC restaurant (e.g. the cytoplasm). However this requires buying pre-made ingredients like the batter (e.g. the code for the protein contained in the DNA) which the chicken is fried in to give it its unique flavor. This batter recipe has been copied (e.g. the mRNA) and then given to each KFC franchise (e.g. ribosome). This copy is then translated into the protein (e.g. fried chicken).

In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) produced by transcription is decoded by a ribosome complex to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein using tRNA.

The ribonucleotides are “read” by translational machinery (the ribosome or in the case of KFC, the restaurant equipment that mixes the batter) in a sequence of nucleotide triplets called codons. Each of those triplets codes for a specific amino acid. These amino acids are “added” one by one to form a protein (e.g. different flavors of fried chicken).

How can a mutation affect proteins and traits?

There are three main types of mutations. Insertion, deletion, and point mutations. You can compare these to writing a paragraph.

Insertion and deletion mutations either add or remove one or more DNA bases. Insertions and deletions (unless they happen in multiples of 3) can shift the reading frame of a gene, changing the grouping of bases into codons. Also called frameshift mutations, these changes can greatly affect a protein’s amino acid sequence. This is similar to writing a paragraph of some sort because it is like using the wrong punctuation, misspelling words, combining words, having run on sentences, not completing a sentence, missing a word, etc. This would change the intended meaning of the paragraph which is what a mutation does.

Point mutation are single base changes in a genes DNA sequence. The categories of point mutations are Missense mutations and they cause single amino acid change within the protein. Nonsense mutations, they cause a premature “stop” codon, causing the protein to be shortened. Lastly, Silent mutations, they do not cause amino acid changes. Point mutations are similar to writing a paragraph because they can be related to changes in a words spelling, having wrong punctuation, and misplacing a period.

Citations

  • “Protein Synthesis (Updated).” Youtube, Amoeba Sisters, 18 Jan. 2018,
    youtube.com/watch?v=oefAI2x2CQM.
  • “DNA Replication: The Cell’s Extreme Team Sport.” Youtube, Amoeba Sisters, 16
    June 2014, youtube.com/watch?v=5qSrmeiWsuc.
  • Bank, Eric. “2 Examples of Heterozygous Traits.” Sciencing, https://sciencing.com/2-examples-heterozygous-traits-20693.html. 24 April 2017.
  • Brennan, John. “Relationship Between DNA Bases Genes, Proteins and Traits.” Sciencing, https://sciencing.com/relationship-between-dna-bases-genes-proteins-traits-2074.html. 26 April 2018

Reflection: I tried to incorporate the story telling format into my protein story but it did not turn out the way I was expecting it to. My protein story is not showing the story telling format because I am answering each individual question. My models are drawn by myself. And I included properly formatted citations.