"I have no special talent. I am only passionately curious" - Albert Einstein

Category: Science

Polymer Journal #1

In this unit, we are creating polymer. So, what is Polymers? Polymers are large molecules that are chemically bonded together. They can be separated into many different parts, and each separated part is called a monomer. Monomers are small molecules that are joined together. Now, to be specific there are two types of polymers. Artificial and natural. Artificial polymers are often identical and is made by scientists and engineers. For example nylon, polyester, plastic and more. The manufacturing of artificial polymer is difficult, I will use acrylic fiber as an example. First polymerisation happens, it means combining two sets of molecules, and changing it into a different structure. Then, heating and spinning, workers would heat the polymer. After a while, air causes polymer to harden, at last fibres are are stretched to create strength. On the other hand, natural polymers are the opposite, their links are different from the bond next to them. They are naturally found and can be extracted. A few examples of natural polymers are silk, wool, DNA and more. But one thing bad about natural polymer is if we used it all we can’t find any more materials to replace it. So we should use environmentally products, and help save our planet earth.


Carnegie Mellon University. “Natural vs Synthetic Polymers – Gelfand Center – Carnegie Mellon University.” Natural vs Synthetic Polymers – Gelfand Center – Carnegie Mellon University, www.cmu.edu/gelfand/education/k12-teachers/polymers/natural-synthetic-polymers/.

“Unsafe Slime? How Bad Is Borax, Really?” The Chronicle Flask, 28 Dec. 2018, chronicleflask.com/2017/08/07/slime-safety/.

Helmenstine, Anne Marie. “What Are Monomers and Polymers?” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 16 Jan. 2019, www.thoughtco.com/monomers-and-polymers-intro-608928.

Youtube video about polymer:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjDDHnByfuo

Where in our solar system should NASA focus future missions?

After reading the two articles about NASA, I think NASA should focus on two topics. First of all,  they should focus on finding life beyond Earth that is on Saturn, and secondly they should try to invent new spacecrafts.

First of all, I think scientists in NASA should focus on finding life beyond Earth. Which they are trying to find in on Saturn. This is because I think that if one day Earth is destroyed, people could escape by planning to move to another planet before hand. Also it is proven that scientists found lots of hydrogen on a tiny, ice-encrusted ocean world on Saturn. So this means that maybe their could be life on Saturn! “We now know that Enceladus has almost all of the ingredients that you would need to support life as we know it on Earth,” Cassini’s project scientist, Linda Spilker said at a NASA news conference. And the more we explore other planets, the more we would actually get use to it when we move to that planet someday.

Secondly, scientists should design new types of space crafts to find for more information about space. Recently a new spaceship will fly around the Europa. The Europa Clipper mission would possibly start as early as June 2022. I think scientists should spend their energy to advance the technology of the spacecraft, so we could use more advanced technology to discover more in space.

At last, I think that NASA should focus on life beyond Earth, and designing new spacecrafts.

How big is the universe-Emily

A few days ago, we had an interesting science class. We were trying to answer the question, how big is the universe?


So, how big is the Universe? First, we need to know the planets in the universe.  The sun, the closest planet to the sun is Mercury, then Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and at last Pluto.


And in class our job was to find the scale distances of each planet from the “Sun”. We used a special type of ruler to measure.


From the data below, we can see that the scale distance from the sun ranges from 11.6 to 1180. The distance of the two planets seem like they only have 1168.4 apart. But when you imagine it, it’s actually very far apart.


Pluto, the farthest planet from the sun in our solar system, is 118000 apart from the sun. We can’t even imagine the distance on Earth. For us, taking a 1km walk is a long distance, but it can definitely not compare with the distance in space. Our solar system might just be a tiny part of the galaxy. One day, we will discover more.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Planet Real Planet diameter (cm) Our scale diameter (cm) Mean distance from sun (km) Scale distance from sun (cm) Scale distance from sun (meters) Travel distance (seconds)
Sun 1,392,000 27.840 xx xx xx xx
Mercury 4,900 0.098 58,000,000 1160 11.6 193.3333333
Venus 12,100 0.242 108,000,000 2160 21.6 360
Earth 12,800 0.256 150,000,000 3000 30 500
Mars 6,800 0.136 228,000,000 4560 45.6 760
Jupiter 142,800 2.856 778,000,000 15560 155.6 2593.333333
Saturn 120,000 2.4 1,427,000,000 28540 286.4 4756.7
Uranus 51,000 1.02 2,870,000,000 57400 574 9566.7
Neptune 48,600 0.972 4,500,000,000 90000 900 15000
Pluto (NLAP) 3,000 0.06 5,900,000,000 118000 1180 19666.7


Most important image ever taken by mankind!-Emily

Part one: What do you think about this statement? “Most important image ever taken!”


I disagree with this statement, because it does not change my life right now. And also because I think that different people see different things that are most important to them. For me the most important image ever taken would be a picture I took with my family.


I think other outer space images that was just discovered would fall into this category. Because they are similar to this photo and they both show us about things in space.


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