"I have no special talent. I am only passionately curious" - Albert Einstein

Category: Science


-white glue 150ml

-corn starch 2 spoons

-borax 50ml

-guar gum 1 spoon

The procedure that we made our polymer is the following:

1. Add in 150ml of white glue, 2 spoons of corn starch, 50ml of borax, and 1 spoon of guar gum into a beaker.

2. Mix all the materials together in the beaker

3. After it  is in the shape of a polymer (harden), take it out of the beaker. Stretch it until it is stretchy and test it on table corners.

I think the polymer we made with white glue and borax was the most successful. It was very stretchy and and easily shaped. We had different prototypes and some were not stretchy, so it wouldn’t protect the corner, it would just fall off directly. Other prototypes were too slimy, which means that it would stick on our clothes or skin. Back to journal 1 when I researched about polymers, the polymers we are making is called artificial polymer, which means that it is not 100% made out of natural materials. The polymer we made was made out of borax, which is a toxic material. But only using a small portion of it would be fine. And our material is made for protecting the corners not to eat or put on skin for a long time. 

I think our plan is overall successful. During the planning stage we quickly decided the product we were going to make, then we started to make our prototypes. We tested all of our prototypes to find out the best product. And at last we created a pitch which is a video to show our audience the characteristics of our product. I think our video is pretty successful because we added in how the product could help us in life. However, we missed some parts, like the sustainability and the pros and cons of the product. So, we decided to talk about it after the presentation. I think our polymer is sustainable because clients could re-use the product and it would still stick, so it has a positive impact to the environment.

Polymer Journal #4

During this class I observed different types polymers, most of the polymers we made stretch really well, but others are tearable. And that is not a good property for the polymer. Other strengths of the polymer is it is soft and sticky. It sticks on the table, but it doesn’t stick on your skin and your clothes. However, a limitation of our polymer is that it can only be a big piece that is stuck on the table. Because a small piece of the slime can’t protect the corner. Another thing is the slime is not drying on the table, so it can’t be stuck on the table for a long period of time. Some polymers did not even stick on the corners, it would just directly fall off the table. So these are some things that I need to improve on. When I showed my mom the polymer, she liked the idea and said it is useful. However she thinks that we need to make sure that we need to keep the size of the polymer, and to find a way so the polymer could stick onto the corner for a long time. And that is why clients would like it, it also makes it easier because clients wouldn’t have to change the polymer all the time.

Polymer Journal 3

Now ourgroup is on the developing stage of the product. For our polymer we would like it to have the following physical properties: soft, able sticks on corners, but does not stick on hands or clothes. Easy to shape. Our plan for developing is to use different types of materials to make the polymer and see which one works out the best. This way we could compare different prototypes. Despite this, we would also mix a little bit of different polymers to make it into something new and test it. The method of testing our prototype is very simple. We would take a little bit of out prototype and stick it on the corner of the table. After that, we would hit the table, only using a little bit of strength. To test to see if the polymer is protecting us from the corner or not. This is an effective way to test our polymer because some of the polymer we tested would not protect the corners very well. It would form a little gap, and hitting it still hurts. While, other polymers work really well. Those types would stick on the corners and not move. So it wouldn’t change when you hit it.



Polymer Journal #2

In this polymer project the goal my group got is safety. Based on this we decided to make polymer that can be stuck on sharp edges or corners that might hut young children or adults. This polymer would be soft so when someone accidentally hits the corners they would’t get hurt. However, this product is really popular, so we wanted to improve this product and making more environmentally friendly. Most of these products are made out of plastic. And as we know, plastic is very unenvironmentally friendly. So, our group wanted to use natural polymers to replace it, but still have the same effect. Our target audience is basically everyone, but especially toddler’s parents. Because I have a little brother at home and he is just the height as most tables are, so it is really easy for him to bump on the corners of the table. Therefore, to make sure that toddlers are safe inside. Their parents should try to make sure that there’s no sharp edges at home. So, this product would be really helpful. Last class we tried different prototypes of the polymer, and I think that adding starch or starch solution is really helpful to our project. This is because it makes the polymer more stretchy and it doesn’t stick on your hand anymore.

Polymer Journal #1

In this unit, we are creating polymer. So, what is Polymers? Polymers are large molecules that are chemically bonded together. They can be separated into many different parts, and each separated part is called a monomer. Monomers are small molecules that are joined together. Now, to be specific there are two types of polymers. Artificial and natural. Artificial polymers are often identical and is made by scientists and engineers. For example nylon, polyester, plastic and more. The manufacturing of artificial polymer is difficult, I will use acrylic fiber as an example. First polymerisation happens, it means combining two sets of molecules, and changing it into a different structure. Then, heating and spinning, workers would heat the polymer. After a while, air causes polymer to harden, at last fibres are are stretched to create strength. On the other hand, natural polymers are the opposite, their links are different from the bond next to them. They are naturally found and can be extracted. A few examples of natural polymers are silk, wool, DNA and more. But one thing bad about natural polymer is if we used it all we can’t find any more materials to replace it. So we should use environmentally products, and help save our planet earth.


Carnegie Mellon University. “Natural vs Synthetic Polymers – Gelfand Center – Carnegie Mellon University.” Natural vs Synthetic Polymers – Gelfand Center – Carnegie Mellon University, www.cmu.edu/gelfand/education/k12-teachers/polymers/natural-synthetic-polymers/.

“Unsafe Slime? How Bad Is Borax, Really?” The Chronicle Flask, 28 Dec. 2018, chronicleflask.com/2017/08/07/slime-safety/.

Helmenstine, Anne Marie. “What Are Monomers and Polymers?” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 16 Jan. 2019, www.thoughtco.com/monomers-and-polymers-intro-608928.

Youtube video about polymer:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjDDHnByfuo

Where in our solar system should NASA focus future missions?

After reading the two articles about NASA, I think NASA should focus on two topics. First of all,  they should focus on finding life beyond Earth that is on Saturn, and secondly they should try to invent new spacecrafts.

First of all, I think scientists in NASA should focus on finding life beyond Earth. Which they are trying to find in on Saturn. This is because I think that if one day Earth is destroyed, people could escape by planning to move to another planet before hand. Also it is proven that scientists found lots of hydrogen on a tiny, ice-encrusted ocean world on Saturn. So this means that maybe their could be life on Saturn! “We now know that Enceladus has almost all of the ingredients that you would need to support life as we know it on Earth,” Cassini’s project scientist, Linda Spilker said at a NASA news conference. And the more we explore other planets, the more we would actually get use to it when we move to that planet someday.

Secondly, scientists should design new types of space crafts to find for more information about space. Recently a new spaceship will fly around the Europa. The Europa Clipper mission would possibly start as early as June 2022. I think scientists should spend their energy to advance the technology of the spacecraft, so we could use more advanced technology to discover more in space.

At last, I think that NASA should focus on life beyond Earth, and designing new spacecrafts.

How big is the universe-Emily

A few days ago, we had an interesting science class. We were trying to answer the question, how big is the universe?


So, how big is the Universe? First, we need to know the planets in the universe.  The sun, the closest planet to the sun is Mercury, then Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and at last Pluto.


And in class our job was to find the scale distances of each planet from the “Sun”. We used a special type of ruler to measure.


From the data below, we can see that the scale distance from the sun ranges from 11.6 to 1180. The distance of the two planets seem like they only have 1168.4 apart. But when you imagine it, it’s actually very far apart.


Pluto, the farthest planet from the sun in our solar system, is 118000 apart from the sun. We can’t even imagine the distance on Earth. For us, taking a 1km walk is a long distance, but it can definitely not compare with the distance in space. Our solar system might just be a tiny part of the galaxy. One day, we will discover more.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Planet Real Planet diameter (cm) Our scale diameter (cm) Mean distance from sun (km) Scale distance from sun (cm) Scale distance from sun (meters) Travel distance (seconds)
Sun 1,392,000 27.840 xx xx xx xx
Mercury 4,900 0.098 58,000,000 1160 11.6 193.3333333
Venus 12,100 0.242 108,000,000 2160 21.6 360
Earth 12,800 0.256 150,000,000 3000 30 500
Mars 6,800 0.136 228,000,000 4560 45.6 760
Jupiter 142,800 2.856 778,000,000 15560 155.6 2593.333333
Saturn 120,000 2.4 1,427,000,000 28540 286.4 4756.7
Uranus 51,000 1.02 2,870,000,000 57400 574 9566.7
Neptune 48,600 0.972 4,500,000,000 90000 900 15000
Pluto (NLAP) 3,000 0.06 5,900,000,000 118000 1180 19666.7


Most important image ever taken by mankind!-Emily

Part one: What do you think about this statement? “Most important image ever taken!”


I disagree with this statement, because it does not change my life right now. And also because I think that different people see different things that are most important to them. For me the most important image ever taken would be a picture I took with my family.


I think other outer space images that was just discovered would fall into this category. Because they are similar to this photo and they both show us about things in space.


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