## Documentary Post

I learned lots of things during this trimester with the capstone project. I self-studied about desertification. I realized China has to be very serious about it. Therefore, I want to spread awareness about how serious is the desertification. To do so, I made a documentary about it. I struggled for 2 weeks to make this. I uploaded it to YouTube so that I could spread awareness to not only ISB student but also people all over the world. I am very satisfied with my work. If I could, I want to expand this project.

URL of my Video: https://youtu.be/g7Ia48Gmp4U

# What is catapult project

: It is a project that practices quadratic function with a visual equipment, catapult. We are designing a catapult ourselves and making a graph of its trajectory. Our final goal is to hit the target with our catapult. To get hit the target, we have to know the equation of its trajectory’s graph. By doing this project, we are able to practice and understand quadratic function visually.

# What did I learn

I think the most important thing that I learned during this project is how to utilize mathematical concept on a real-life problem. Nowadays, the STEM is becoming important. The STEM is the word that includes Science, Tech, Engineer, and Mathematics. In catapult project, we used Tech and Engineer to make the catapult and Mathematics to figure out the quadratic equation of the ping-pong ball’s trajectory that our catapult threw. I used lazer cutter at first to make a cross.

:Floor plan of the cross of the crossbow. I used illustrator to use lazer cuttter

:Inside the lazer cutter. The cross is making inside it.

There is a challenge in everything. The accuracy of the catapult was the challenge in this project. My team made a crossbow instead of the catapult. One big problem with the crossbow is that we don’t know how strong is it so whenever we launch the ping-pong ball from our crossbow, each distance of the ball reaching was always different. But I solved this problem by putting wood and tongs. Wood makes the limit of how far the rubber band expanded and tongs make the launching to be stable. By changing these two parts, we became able to expect how far the ball will reach. Next time, I want to use the same size of woods next to launching path in order to make it more stable. This time, we used different size of woods. So, our catapult kept moving and our launching path was little skewed. This project helps me to understand about quadratic function. I experienced making three different form of the same equation, and I notice that the quadratic function works in real life. I was shocked about the quadratic function can expect real-life problem such as the maximum height of the ball, when does the ball fell down to the ground and how far does the ball go.

# Process

## At the lab

We are making our own catapult at the Feb Lab during first and second class.

Cutting the long and big wood into small wood to make a bond of catapult(CrossBow)

I was using sander. The original wood was too rough to touch. So, I used the sander to make wood soft.

## At the classroom

We are lanuching the ping-pong ball with our own catapult and figuring out the quadratic function of its trajectory.

The graph of Time&Distance.(using Desmos)

The graph of Distance&Height graph.(using Desmos)

I figured out the graph with Logger Pro at first. At this time, I only found the standard form of its Time&Distance graph.

Three different form of Height&Distance graph. (Standard form, Factored form, Vertex form)

Three different form of Height&Distance graph. (Standard form, Factored form, Vertex form)

## Catapult competition, using Desmos simulation

Challenge 2

Challenge 3

Challenge 1

https://student.desmos.com/activitybuilder/student/5af106b48e4d37503ec30b19

## Our Catapult’s Video

I made an elevator pitch on Tuesday to tell about desertification and practice oral presentation. I started with a clear voice and I organized my elevator pitches’ story well. However, I have something to improve. Next time, I want to memorize more script and look at the audience more.

Elevator Pitches Video:

## Polymer Journal #4

 Prototype Observations Strengths for this Prototype Limitations for this Prototype Trial# 2 36ml PVA, 12ml borax, 1cm glue, 13ml starch and 3ml water and blue food color. Sky Blue Easily roll down Slippery Not quite expansible Soft Bouncy Not smelly Waterproof Become stiff after a long time passed. Slippery: it makes more comfortable for users rather than sticky shoes. Soft: it makes more comfortable for users. Not smelly: it makes more comfortable for users. Bouncy: If someone walks with the shoes consisted of our polymer, it is bouncy so, that person can walk well, easily and put a less effort to walk. Waterproof: we can use it when it is raining. Lack of expansible ability: to achieve my goal, expansible shoes, a polymer has to expand well. Easily roll down: When I hold it, It rolled down easily. So, if we use this to making shoes, the shoes can’t retain its shape and quickly lose its shape. Become stiff : My polymer becomes thick after a long time passed. So, my polymer is not expansible any longer after a long time passed Trial #3 51ml PVA, 10ml borax, 1cm glue, 13ml starch and 3ml water and green food color. Light green Slippery Little expansible Soft Bouncy Not smelly Waterproof Become stiff after a long time passed. Slippery: it makes more comfortable for users rather than sticky shoes. Soft: it makes more comfortable for users. Not smelly: it makes more comfortable for users. Bouncy: If someone walks with the shoes consisted of our polymer, it is bouncy so, that person can walk well, easily and put a less effort to walk. Waterproof: we can use it when it is raining. Little expansible: it is better than the second trial but it is still snapped when I stretch it widely. So, it must be more expansible Become stiff : My polymer becomes thick after a long time passed. So, my polymer is not expansible any longer after a long time passed Trial #4 Final prototype PVA 50ml, Borax 10ml, Glue 0.7cm and Starch 13ml and pouring the water on the polymer. I used red food color on it. Pink Slippery Expansible Soft Bouncy Not smelly Waterproof Become stiff after a long time passed Slippery: it makes more comfortable for users rather than sticky shoes. Soft: it makes more comfortable for users. Not smelly: it makes more comfortable for users. Bouncy: If someone walks with the shoes consisted of our polymer, it is bouncy so, that person can walk well, easily and put a less effort to walk. Waterproof: we can use it when it is raining. Expansible: It is expansible. So, I can stretch it more than 50cm Become stiff : My polymer becomes thick after a long time passed. So, my polymer is not expansible any longer after a long time passed

## Prototype Claim

We get our polymer’s name, Loopy from the animation, One Piece.

Use evidence from above observations to complete.

Prototype # _4___, called ___Loopy__, was most effective in meeting our goal because:

Loopy meets all of the characters that we want. Loopy is waterproof, expansible, slippery, soft, bouncy and not smelly. As a result, it can be used for shoes. Loopy is expansible so, people change its size, it is soft, slippery, bouncy so, people can use it comfortably. As a result, our polymer, Loopy
is the best material to make the expansible shoes.

## Future improvement

One thing that I was not satisfied with our polymer is that our polymer is getting stiff as the time pass. So, if I get an opportunity to make a polymer again, I really want to improve this problem

## Method of Final Design

At first, we tried with 15ml PVA, 3ml borax, 0.5cm white glue, 10ml starch and 3ml water. And I got an important information in this process. It is that a proper amount of borax and PVA’s combination makes polymer slippery and not to roll down, booger’s materials make polymer expansible and a combination of glue and water build a solid body. Unfortunately, we were not able to combine all ingredient. So, we didn’t get a polymer. After failed first try, we tried with 36ml PVA, 12ml borax, 1cm glue, 13ml starch and 3ml water. Fortunately, we got a polymer. I think the reason why got a polymer at this time is I add more PVA. And I realize PVA help to mix something well.

But we were not satisfied with this polymer yet because it is not that expansible. So, we decided to try with 51ml PVA, 10ml borax, 1cm glue, 13ml starch and 3ml water. Luckily, it seemed perfect. But when I check my polymer at the next science class, it was not expansible anymore. Consequently, we planned to try one more. we tried with PVA 50ml, Borax 10ml, Glue 0.7cm and Starch 13m. We changed one big thing. That is pouring water into polymer instead of mixing water. Through this process, finally, we get a perfect polymer, Loopie.

## Reflection

I think the process was quite good and smooth. We made our prototypes a polymer quickly. But one thing that was miserable is we notice that one problem of our polymer almost at the end of this project. The problem was very difficult and serious. It was that our polymer getting stiff as the time passes. Because of this problem, my polymer was thick and not expansible at the end of class. So, we made another polymer quickly and this one became our final polymer. I was interested in getting one goal and solving it with our own polymer.

This was very interesting. I learn about some materials’ feature such as PVA, borax, starch and what is a polymer. This is an unforgettable experience.

## Why is Our Polymer Different From Previous Design?

Normal shoes are stiff and thick, so it can’t be stretched. Therefore, if people’s feet grow and their feet are not fit with shoes, they have to change their shoes. However, our polymer shoes have special abilities. If people make the shoes with our polymer, the shoes can be stretched so that people don’t need lots of shoes during their lives. Also, our polymer shoes can be stretched not only its sizes but also its shape. Consequently, the shoes will more fit with user’s feet. Our polymer shoes are also waterproof. So, people are able to use our shoes when it rains.

Describing Our Polymer

We want the Physical Properties to include:

• Soft
• little elastic
• bouncing
• expansible
• slippery
• Not smelly
• Waterproof
• solid(our polymer must not roll down when I hold it)

## Our Plan to Develop our Prototype

*Prototype = sample or model

1st we will…

First try polymer– fail

First, we decide a character of our polymer and it is slippery and expansible. It is because these are fundamental features of our polymers to achieve our goals. Expansible is needed to expand, change our polymer to any size, shape and slippery is needed not to make the sticky shoes. If the shoes are sticky, people don’t want to use.

First, we try with 15ml PVA, 3ml borax, 0.5cm white glue, 10ml starch and 3ml water. According to my analysis of three polymer test(gloop, boogers, super slime), I found that a proper amount of borax and PVA’s combination makes polymer slippery and not to roll down, booger’s materials make polymer expansible and a combination of glue and water build a solid body.

Second try polymer—blue

2nd we will…

We are not able to mix with first try’s prototype completely. We can’t get a real polymer. So, we failed on the first try. But we realize something important, PVA is good for mixing materials. So, we add more PVA to mix all materials and get a polymer easily. We also add food color.

So, we plan to try an experiment with 36ml PVA, 12ml borax, 1cm glue, 13ml starch and 3ml water.

Third polymer–green

3rd we will…

We plan to add more PVA and subtract borax from the second prototype.

So, we get a prototype; 51ml PVA, 10ml borax, 1cm glue, 13ml starch and 3ml water. Fortunately, this polymer contains all character that we want. But there is one thing that we want to improve more, a degree of expansible. When I stretched it widely, it was snapped. So, I have to make it more expansible.

Finally

Final polymer–pink

We need the polymer that is slippery, expansible and waterproof. To get this polymer, we plan to subtract little glue from the third recipe. It is because we realized that glue makes polymer less expansible and more sticky.

Final prototype: PVA 50ml, Borax 10ml, Glue 0.7cm and Starch 13ml. There is one big thing that we decided to change, pouring water into the polymer instead of mixing water.

## How we’ll test it to see if it works

Method Why we chose this/How this will be effective

### Stretching a polymer and compare it with a 30-cm ruler and my shoes

The reason why I compare the polymer with my shoes and ruler:

To see how much our polymer expands.

How this will be effective:

If our polymer expands more than my shoes’ length(285cm), width and a 30-cm ruler, it is qualified for being shoes.

Result: According to NBC news, the longest feet size in the world is 16 inch, around 40cm. And our polymer was expanded much more than 30cm- ruler. As a result, my shoes can be fit for any person.

### Putting an eraser inside a polymer

Reason: To test whether our polymer is sticky or slippery

How this will be effective:

If an eraser is not attached, then our polymer is slippery but if an eraser is attached, our polymer is sticky.

The reason why I use an eraser:

The eraser consists of lots of eraser powders. So, it is attached to other more easily. So, if the eraser powders are not attached to my polymer, then my shoes can prove that it is slippery much stronger than using other materials.

Result: An eraser powder was not attached to the polymer at all. Consequently, the polymer is slippery

### Putting the paper inside a polymer and pour the water into it

Reason: To check the ability of waterproof.

How this will be effective: If the paper isn’t wet after pouring water, the polymer is waterproof.

Result: the paper was not wet at all, so our polymer is waterproof.

Sources I used:

Categories: Science | | 1 Comment

## Our Goal:

The goal of our polymer project is to …

Make wearable polymer. And I decided to make the shoes which have a special ability, the size and shape can be changed.

## Target Market Audience

 Target Market Audience How will this help them? Target Market Audience #1: The person who have fast growing feet. (especially, children) This person might spend lots of money on buying new shoes because this person’s feet grow quickly so, this person has to change shoes frequently. But if this person has the shoes that size can be changed, this person doesn’t need to spend that much money any longer. Possible Target Market Audience #2: The person who has too big or small feet. (Doesn’t fit with shoes standard size) When someone’s feet shape or size are not fit with shoe standard, they have to buy the shoes that designed only for this person. So, my polymer shoes can help these people because my shoes can be changed to any size or shape.

Describing Our Polymer

We want the Physical Properties to include:

• Soft
• little elastic
• bouncing
• expansible
• slippery
• Not smelly
• Waterproof
• solid(our polymer must not roll down)

Polymer Characteristics We Are Looking For

*Gloop, Super Slime, Stretch-tactic, Slime, Oobleck

Polymer Characteristics Why this is important

## Gloop

Bouncing, little sticky, soft, solid Bouncing: when we walk, we always press the shoes because of the four fundamental forces of nature, gravity.

So, if the shoes are not bouncing well, the user’s feet will get a hurt and the shoes are easily broken.

Little sticky: Not to break, divide the polymer.

Soft: to make users’ feel comfortable.

Solid: not to make our polymer roll down.

## Boogers

Expansible, little elastic, soft Expansible: To expand our polymer’s shape, a size easily.

Little elastic: to make this shoes fit with user’s feet well.

Soft: to make users’ feel comfortable.

## Super Slime

Slippery, soft, solid Slippery: if the shoes sticky, people don’t want to use.

Soft: to make users’ feel comfortable.

Solid: not to make our polymer roll down.

## Definition of scientific words

In science class, we were searching and learning about “Polymer”. And we are going to make our own design of polymer.

First of all, what’s the definition of Polymer?

### Polymer

: A large molecule composed of many repeated subunits. The world “Polymer” actually comes from the Greek word meaning “many parts”. Each polymers’ features are different. It can be sticky, slime, think, soft etc. It depends on the monomers.

And we called this repeated subunits in the polymer as a monomer.

And there is another difficult word that I learned in Science class.

### Polymerization

It means the process of chemically bonding monomers to form polymers. So, the polymers are formed through the polymerization.

### Process

So, how do natural resources go through a chemical reaction to become synthetic materials?

Natural resources act as a monomer for a synthetic material. For example, the plastic is usually made by oil, gas, coal(fossil fuels) and petroleum and these natural sources are acting as a monomer. So, these natural monomers will combine to form a synthetic polymer. And we called this process as polymerization. Through this process, the synthetic polymers are formed from the natural resources. As a result, the natural resources act as a monomer and these monomers are combined each other.

## Synthetic VS Natural

We can divide the polymers into two types which are synthetic and natural.

1. Synthetic polymer: it is the man-made polymers or the polymers which are synthesized in the laboratory. This is much more common than natural polymer. Majority of the things that we use are synthetic polymers. For example, manmade rubber and fabrics such as polyester, nylon, rayon, and plastic are synthetic polymers.
2. Natural polymer: The polymers which are obtained in natural. This polymer is made from plant or animal products. Exist in plants or animals. For example, Cotton, silk, wool, natural rubber, DNA, protein are natural polymers.

## Where the synthetic polymers come from?

And now I want to go deeper on the synthetic polymer. What natural resources does the synthetic polymer come from? And where we use it for? Here are two examples.

1. Nylon: It comes from a silk(silkworms) and it is using the parachute, fabric, socks, rows, and stocking etc.

2. Plastic: It comes from oil, gas, coal(fossil fuels), and petroleum etc. Actually, we can get plastic from almost natural things. It is using for the various way such as clothing, surgery tools, and supplies, hobbyist model, bottle caps, food containers, straws, crisp bags, kettles, lunch boxes, packing tape etc.

Sources I used:

 http://yourenergysavings.gov.au/information/plastics https://www.cutplasticsheeting.co.uk/blog/uncategorized/the-5-most-common-plastics-their-everyday-uses/ https://www.creativemechanisms.com/blog/all-about-polypropylene-pp-plastic https://byjus.com/chemistry/differentiate-natural-polymers-from-synthetic-polymers-and-properties https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymer https://sciencing.com/does-nylon-come-4596037.html

## Revolutionary Voices Journal: Syrian Revolution

I wrote the tragic history of the Syrian War. My main character is a 30 years old reporter who decides to show people what and how is happening in Syria. I wanted to write a journal with reporter’s perspective because reporter would know every single information about the Syrian War as well. Through this decision, I can describe Syria War well.
I learned what and how is happening in Syria and I can see this war with Syrian reporter’s view.

## Syrian Revolution

I learned Syrian Revolution with great teacher, Mr.Sostak. I totally understood what is happening in Syria. So, Jack, Brian and I planned to make Common Craft Video for other students to understand why the Syrian War began and how is it going now. I learned how to communicate and collaborate with others well.

## About From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy

We have thought about the universe since ancient time. And we have had lots of question. Like why did the universe begin, since when did the universe begin, the progress of star’s creation, How big is the universe, why does the planets orbit the stars, how old is the universe, the identity of dark energy and dark matter etc… Also there are many ideas, theories of these question. Some of these mysteries were solved by brilliant scientist. But others are not solved until now.

This interesting book, From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy by John Farndon is all about history of astrophysics. The reason why I chose this book is that science is my favorite. And among the science, I like astrophysics most. Also, nowadays I am interesting in dark energy.  So I searched the book about astrophysics and dark energy. And finally I found this book. This book is composed with 19 different contents. Also these contents are explained in  chronological sequence.

Name of first  content is The Many Mysteries of Space. This content explain how many mystries is in the universe, how big is the universe and the Big Bang.

According to From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy express “People have been asking this question [the size of universe] for thousands of years, but still nobody knows” (John Farndon 4), nobody knows how big is the universe so, this question is big mystery of universe.

Also, he claimed that the universe is very very huge throughout his narration:

The universe is the whole of space and everything in it. The universe contains over 100 billion galaxies (vast groups of stars) , each containing as many as 100 billion stars like the Sun. Many of these stars have planets circling them, just as Earth circles the Sun. (John Farndon 4).

According to From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy express ” Scientists now think the universe began from virtually noting about 13.7 billion years ago and has been swelling out at a incredible rate ever since (John Farndon 5), he said the Big Bang is incredible swelling out when the universe created.

According to From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy express “the more we learn, the more mysterious we find it” (John Farndon 5), there are unlimited mysteries in the universe.

There are two ancient country that first studied the universe scientifically. One is Egypt. Egyptians made precise observations of the stars. Other is Greeks. They thought Earth is round. According to  John Farndon’s research, From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy may explain “They [Greeks] figured out that Earth is round, from clues such as the way ships dip below the horizon” (6).

Ancient people thought the Earth is the centre of universe. So, based on their thought, two brilliant astronomers, the Greeks Hipparchus and the Roman Ptolemy built up a Ptolemaic system.

The Ptolemaic system is a model that Earth is center of the universe and it was a great mathematical machine for predicting the exact movements of celestial bodies for over 1,500 years throughout his narration:

In the Ptolemaic system, Earth is the fixed centre of the universe.

………………………………………..

It was a mathematical machine for predicting the exact movements of the Sun, the Moon, the planets, and stars. Although it turned out to be wrong, it provided a good basic for astronomical calculations for more than 1,500 years. (John Farndon 6~7)

This system seemed to work well for 1400 years. But around 1500, a polish priest, Nicolaus Copernicus(1473-1543), suggested some other ideas because he found some problems. His idea was the sun is centre of the universe and other planets orbit the Sun.

According to From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy express “Earth is part of the solar system. The solar system is made up of the Sun, along with the planets and various smaller objects, such as asteroids, that continually orbit it” (John Fardon 9), it show the Copernicus explained solar system as the Sun is centre of our solar system and other celestial object orbit the Sun.

After this big two happened, Kepler found few problem of Copernicus’s theory and he figured out the planets orbit the Sun in ellipse. And Galileo made his own telescope and found Jupiter and four satellites of Jupiter.

In mid-1600s, Isaac Newton figured out the reason why planets orbit the Sun and moons orbit the planets. His answer was the balance between gravity and inertia throughout his narration:

Inertia is the tendency for things to stay still or keep moving at the same speed in a straight line, The planets’ inertia keeps them flying on through space. The gravitational pull between each planets and the Sun holds them in orbit. Gravity and inertia are in perfect balance. If the inertia were too great or the gravity too weak, the planets would fly off into space, away from the Sun. If inertia were too weak and the gravity too strong, the planets would spiral into the Sun.

Most of classic astronomical events finished. Now I supposed to talk about modern astrophysics. The first event/person is one of the most important turning point events in the history and he is my role model. The Albert Einstein. He had made remarkable achievements.

Einstein published one of the best theories in the world. This theory concluded relation between time, place and light and  suggest our life are relative. And finally he realised the speed of light is absolute throughout his narration:

In 1905, Einstein had stunned the scientific world with his Special Relativity theory. In this, he built onGalileo’s theory that all movement is relative. In other words, you can only tell that you are moving by comparison to something.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

Einstein is said to have wondered what would happen to your reflection in a mirror if the ship sailed as fast as light. However, Einstein realized  that this is not what happens, because you can never catch up with light, no matter how fast you go. Light is the one speed that is absolute, not relative. Einstein called his theory Special Relativity. Then he realised that if the speed of light is fixed, something else has to be changeable, and that must be time and space. In other words, time and space vary instead of the speed of light. (John Farnbon 24~25)

Also he predicted when the spaceship traveling as fast as light. He thought there are 3 strange things happen. In “From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy” John Fardon argues:

Einstein’s theory showed that some strange things must go on when objects are traveling very fast. Imagine watching a spaceship accelerating to near the speed of light. Everything in the ship would seem completely normal to the astronauts. But, from Earth, you would notice three things.

1. The spaceship would get shorter.
2. Clocks on the spaceship would run slower as time stretched. This is called time dilation.
3. If you could measure it, you would find that the spaceship would grow heavier. (John Fardon 25)

Also he published General Relativity theory in 1915. According to From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy express ” In this theory [General Relativity theory], he explored what happens to objects that change speed or direction. As he did so, he came up with an entirely new idea of gravity (John Farnbon 26), the General Relativity theory is related with gravity.

Finally he found the space is bended by gravity throughout his narration:

According to Einstein, gravity is not a force. It is a distortion in spacetime that is created by the presence of mass and energy. Scientists often visualize spacetime as a sheet go stretchy fabric. Imagine putting a large mass, such as the Sun, on the “fabric” of spacetime. It will warp to from a hollow, just as a trampoline might if you put a heavy bowling ball on it. If you then add a smaller, lighter mass, such as Earth, it will run down into the hollow created by the Sun. Only Bath’s momentum keeps it from falling altogether. (John Farndon 27)

Before Einstein’s great work, there were remarkable works by Hubble and Georges Lemaître. Edwin Hubble discovered the galaxies and Georges Lemaître realized the universe is expanding. After Einstein’s great study, lots of remarkable things happened too. Many scientists tried to figure out the beginning of universe with great technology and discovered the Big Bang eventually. In 1916, German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild claimed that there should be a thing which absorbs everything even the light in the universe called Black Hole. And then, scientists discovered the Black Hole. They succeeded to find the black hole which is created by supernova and it pulls everything in the universe.

And now scientists are trying to make sure what is dark matter and dark energy. According to From Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy express “Scientists used the WMAP data to figure out that the universe is made of 4 percent ordinary matter, 23 percent dark matter, and 73 percent dark energy (John Farndon 52), there are only 4 percent of materials that we discovered already and we don’t know what things are composed of other 96% and we called these things dark matter and dark energy.

We have talked about astrophysics’ history. And this book teach us from Ptolemy’s Spheres to Dark Energy. Today, scientists are still researching about lots of mysteries in universe. I hope that they solve mysteries in universe and I want to help about solving these mysteries. It because my dream job is astrophysicist. Anyway we were talking about astrophysics today. I wish that some of reader become interesting in astrophysics.