Carol Ann Duffy Mrs. Tilscher’s Class Analysis

Carol Ann Duffy utilizes the transition of tone and diction to underscore the naive, innocent nature of adolescence. In the first stanza, Duffy first uses second person to connect to the readers, evoking nostalgia and memories from the reader’s own childhood. By including the word “laugh”, Duffy introduces the concept of naïve happiness that children possess before and during the early stages of adolescence. This stanza brings out the nativity, innocence, and sense of comfort during youth. This signifies the early stages of adolescence where the students are still in an innocent, joyful, and more importantly, inexperienced state. The second stanza then mentions “sugar paper” and “sweetshop” which are commonly associated with childhood pleasure. This creates a fantastical, dream-like atmosphere for the readers, sustaining the playful and joyful mood from the previous stanza. However, by including: “uneasy smudge of a mistake”, Duffy foreshadows the loss of innocence in the next stanza while at the same time brings a sense of uneasiness to the reader. Duffy chooses to include a drastic change in tone throughout the stanza. In lines 17 to 21, Duffy uses words such as “hop”, “jump”, “croak” and “free”. These words connect to the joyful nature of the tadpoles mentioned in line 17. Thus, establishing a maintained, cheerful tone to this poem. In lines 21-23, Duffy included the word “kicked” which brings out a negative connotation to this poem while also signifying a shift in tone. This shift in tone indicates a change to the reader both literally and analytically. In the final stanza, there is a clear change in diction as well as tone as Duffy includes the word “sexy” to describe the sky. This suggested the becoming of age of a child and the loss of innocence throughout this process. By including words such as “feverish”, “electricity”, “hot” and “impatient”, Duffy highlights the child’s anticipation of leaving school and the process of moving on to adulthood. This questions whether this loss of innocence would still occur if the child was kept from certain pieces of information such as knowing how she was born.

 

Duffy’s utilization of sensory related imagery also helps establish the concept of adolescence. In the first stanza, Duffy includes words such as “chanted” and “laugh” to portray Mrs.Tilscher as a glorified figure, thus evoking positive impressions from the audience. The word “chanted” is also commonly associated with music, which brings a soothing feeling to the reader. In the second stanza, the sound of the xylophone highlights the soothing sound of music in music class, creating a somewhat surreal, dream-like mood of childhood. This forms contrast with the third stanza where Duffy included: “tasted of electricity”. The nasty shocks of electricity seem to be brought to life, emphasizing the contrast of imaging. This contrast suggests a loss of innocence. These sensory imaging also acts as a way that a child perceives knowledge and perhaps without these, a child can be kept from losing his/her innocence

 

Duffy also uses allusions in order to highlight the importance of educational protection during adolescence. In the second stanza, the allusion of Brady and Hindley who were serial killers that hunted children suggests that the children’s exposure to information due to lack of protection that were not meant for their age, the next line: “like the faint, uneasy smudge of a mistake”  underscores the long-term psychological impact that it had brought upon the child while at the same time acting as a potential threat to the psychological means of a child throughout adolescence.

 

In conclusion, Duffy utilizes tone and diction, sensory imagery, and allusions to shed light on the impact of a mentor figure’s protection of innocence during education to the psychological safety of children.

Donnelly Cartoon Analysis

The most prominent artistic technique uses in this cartoon would be the use of color. This cartoon is completely based off of a black and white color scheme. This essentially casts a stern, stark mood for the cartoon, highlighting the uniform, mundane, and unthinking nature of the men sitting around the table. These men are conformists, being educated purely based off of the stereotypical feminist perspective. Yet in reality, this stereotypical ideology is constructed by men; their androcentric mindset serves as an obstacle for them to back down from their patriarchal throne in attempt to interpret the genuine feminist perspective. The character standing by the door is also in black and white like the other executives. This suggests that he merely represents another ignorant, uninformed individual who neglects the actual female perspective. Through this character, Donnelly criticizes men’s stereotypical and ignorant perception of females: high heels and earrings, and their lack of education in regard to the authentic feminist viewpoint.

 

The exquisite use of irony in the cartoon amplifies the artist’s main message. Donnelly ironically introduces a male character dressed up with exaggerated stereotypical female accessories to supposedly present the feminist perspective. By doing this, the artist reveals the absurdity of men’s self-righteous view of feminism. In response, Donnelly does not refute such fallacy, but in the contrary, ironically criticizes the stereotypical viewpoint by exaggerating its absurdity to ultimately emphasize the preposterous nature of men’s stereotypical perception of women. Additionally, it is ironic how the male executives ignorantly view the ridiculously mistaken feminist view as an accurate depiction of the feminist perspective. Through this, Donnelly satirizes and exposes the mob mentality of these male figures and their indifference to feminist matters and thus brings the lack of awareness and widespread misconceptions in regard to feminist perspectives to light.

 

The use of the rule of thirds enhances the main message of the comic. By incorporating the rule of thirds into her cartoon, Donnelly communicates the significance of various elements and subjects. The comic is split into three equal parts across the panel, and out of the three parts, two were taken up by the male executives sitting at the table, while the other was taken up by the feminist representative. This suggests the prominence of male dominance in society, and how the quantitative male dominance in society led to the prominence of a self-righteous mentality in men. Yet, this patriarchal mentality is merely misconception from men; an illusion that men are hierarchical leaders of society. Additionally, the male executives and the feminist representative are placed in opposing directions. This suggests the opposing nature of male figures and their disapproving attitude towards the feminist perspective. As male figures portray themselves as the hierarchical leaders of society as a result of the lack of education in regard to feminist perspectives, they naturally express hostility and despise towards females.

 

In consolidation, Donnelly utilizes a limited color scheme, irony, and the rule of thirds in order to address a widespread issue; the self-righteous mentality of male figures in society and their signs of hostility and despise towards females. Yet all attribute to the lack of awareness and the extensive amount of misconception in respect to feminist perspectives.

 

I Am a Fan Notes

  • Oxymorons
  • Reiteration
  • Choice of diction
  • Space, symmetry
  • Decisive moments
  • Zhajiangmian
  • Randomness
  • Sleeping on the trains
  • Red
  • Nature
  • Accuracy and authenticity
  • Mandarin oriental
  • Metaphor “life decision”
  • 1st person autobiography
  • Contrast
  • Snob appeal
  • Transfer “home”
  • Visual Focus
  • Pathos – Patriotism
  • Celebrity advertising – bandwagon
  • “when I get to a new city, my first choice is always mandarin oriental”
  • Personal experience
  • Examples
  • Red – motif
  • Oxymoron – from the orient to the occident, light to dark, being to nothingness, from me to you
  • “anything is possible”
  • symbolism
  • idiom
  • sanctuary
  • black and white – tension, anticipation

IO Preparation

Amy Lu

Outline #1 – Zoom in and then zoom out

 

Use this outline if you find your argument works best by first zooming into the extract and then you want to zoom out to explore the whole work or body of work in connection to your global issue.  This structure also provides a clear separation between the extract and the larger work or body of work.

 

Narrowed Down Global Issue:

How does an excessive amount of power distort the powerful and their moral values?

 

Literary text: The Odyssey Book 5 (lines 285-320)

Non-Literary text: The Onion “What Trump Hopes To Accomplish Before Leaving The White House” (lines 1-15)

 

1-minute introduction (This is just a suggestion and is not exhaustive nor the only thing students can do!  In no particular order, students may want to have the following in their introduction:)

What is the global issue and how have you narrowed it down?

My global issue is: how does an excessive amount of power distort the powerful and their moral values? This global issue aims to investigate the impacts of power on the powerful: both politically and in terms of mortality and immortality.

What is the summary/description of the “whole” literary work you’ve chosen?  Write 1-2 bullet points.

The Odyssey is an epic poem that mainly illustrates the journey of Odysseus. The main hero of the story – Odysseus – was swayed away from home as a punishment for blinding Poseidon’s son. After series of tangents and obstacles, Odysseus arrived back in Ithaca and reunited with his wife and his son.

What is the summary/description of this particular extract you’ve chosen and why? Write 1-2 bullet points.

Poseidon found out that the other gods have changed their decision to what they should do towards Odysseus’ fate. Odysseus then expresses his misery and despair towards his current circumstances far away from home.

 What is the summary/description of the “whole” non-literary body of work you’ve chosen?  Write 1-2 bullet points.

What is the summary/description of this particular extract you’ve chosen and why? Write 1-2 bullet points.

This non-literary work exposes Donald Trump’s irrational and selfish behaviors after he found out that Joe Biden had won the 2020 presidential election. Though by text, this article does not reflect these behaviors, but the clear satirical tone had suggested otherwise.

 What is the link or connection between the literary and the non-literary work/text and how do they connect to the global issue in question?

Trump’s irrational behaviors reflect his inability to accept that he lost and his refusal to act for the greater good for the country. As he is currently still in hold of the American presidential position, he is making irrational decisions to try to overthrow the current circumstances in the United States for him to regain power. This questions his moral boundaries as his decisions have caused thousands of American citizens to die each day from COVID-19. Poseidon’s response to Odysseus’ damage to his son was violence. Poseidon used violence to stop violence, and this was achieved only through the immortal powers that he possesses in his hands. This leads us to question whether Poseidon would respond in the same way if he was not an immortal. Additionally, as Poseidon is of a leading figure in Greek mythology, when he steps out of his moral boundaries, this will impact the mortals and distort their moral boundaries.

What is your thesis or main claim?  Alternatively, what is a question you could pose that would frame your exploration? 

An excessive amount of power will distort one’s moral boundaries, especially when one’s power is challenged.

2-minute literary extract discussion zooming in on specific and detailed examples of the author’s choices in connection to the global issue

 

Main claim/argument for this portion of the IO:

 Poseidon’s immortal power vs. Odysseus’ mortal power. Poseidon’s immortal power is challenged when Odysseus kills his son. This is mainly he reason why he is so angry and acts so irrationally.

 Piece(s) of evidence to support the claim/argument:

“This is outrageous! So it seems the gods have changed their plans about Odysseus while I was absent!”

“I will goad him to more misery”

“I will have a sea of sufferings before I reach my homeland”

“I can hold on to one thing: certain death”

Unpacking of the evidence – Name the formal or technical choice(s) in your evidence and add your analysis and interpretation of how meaning is created:

 

syntax and diction – question marks, exclamation marks, reflects the unknown nature of Odysseus’ journey and Poseidon’s power

Contrast; imagery – contrast between tone of Odysseus and Poseidon. People with power and without power, the differences between them and how Odysseus is placed at a disadvantage.

Metaphor – crashing waves, sea of sufferings, reflects the differences between the powers of immortal power and mortal power

 

(Repeat the evidence and the unpacking as many times as you need.  There’s no set number here as to how many examples you must have or how many choices you must discuss in relation to meaning.)

 

 

 

2-minute whole literary work discussion zooming out on larger authorial choices in connection to the global issue

 

Main claim/argument for this portion of the IO:

As one’s power is challenged, fear is developed that this power would be taken from him, therefore under the impacts of fear, the powerful tend to distort their senses of morality and what could be considered as correct.

Piece(s) of evidence to support the claim/argument: Book 5 Lines 285-320

“He cried out in despair, ‘More pain? How will it end? I am afraid’”

I wish I had died that same day”

“but now I have to die this cruel death!”
“Then for a long time rushing, crashing waves kept him submerged: he could not reach the surface”

 

Unpacking of the evidence – Name the broader authorial choices or how the choices in the extract are continued in the whole literary work.  Make sure to add your analysis and interpretation of how meaning is created:

 

Tone – angry, emotional tone of Poseidon, Odysseus’ despair. How power grants Poseidon right to be angry while Odysseus can only be in despair under such disadvantages.

Contrast – Contrast between mortals and immortals and the hierarchal system of their power in Greece. The fear and respect of the mortals towards the immortals

Imagery – The waves represent Poseidon’s power as Poseidon is the god of the sea and earthquakes, it suggests how Odysseus was constrained by Poseidon’s power and refrained from defending himself.

 

(Repeat the evidence and the unpacking as many times as you need.  There’s no set number here as to how many examples you must have or how many choices you must discuss in relation to meaning.)

2-minute non-literary extract discussion zooming in on specific and detailed examples of the author’s choices in connection to the global issue

 

Main claim/argument for this portion of the IO:

 

Trump’s irrational response after realizing Biden’s victory in the presidential elections reflected one’s fall from high political power. Trump’s selfish acts exposes his completely neglected moral boundaries

 

Piece(s) of evidence to support the claim/argument:

 

“Hold yard sale to raise money for legal battles and recounts”

“Honor the hapless boys and girls in intelligence by listening to even one morning briefing”

 

Unpacking of the evidence – Name the formal or technical choice(s) in your evidence and add your analysis and interpretation of how meaning is created:

Bullet point – structured like a bucket list, warns readers about the ongoing issue.

Exaggeration – adds to the satirical tone which reflects trump’s tendency to lie in front of the public

Allusion – alludes to the bible and trump’s campaign pledge, refers back to previous promises that he had made when he was still in power.

The inability to realize promises of trumps’ part is an act out of selfishness, caused by challenges of Trump’s power by Joe Biden.

 

(Repeat the evidence and the unpacking as many times as you need.  There’s no set number here as to how many examples you must have or how many choices you must discuss in relation to meaning.)

 

 

2-minute body of work discussion zooming out on larger authorial choices in connection to the global issue

Main claim/argument for this portion of the IO:

Trump’s power is challenged by Joe Biden who won the presidential elections recently. As his power is challenged, Trump completely discarded his perception of morality and is purposely making negative impacts on the countries.

 

Piece(s) of evidence to support the claim/argument:

“Get his father’s ghost to say one kind thing

Unpacking of the evidence – Name the broader authorial choices or how the choices in the extract are continued in the whole literary work.  Make sure to add your analysis and interpretation of how meaning is created:

 

Tone – Uses a satirical and humorous tone to approach such a politically sensitive issue so the readers would react positively.

Structure – clear, concise structure for readers to be attracted to this onion article as this is a commonly discussed topic nowadays.

Allusion – positive influences are alluded to, therefore highlighting the negative impacts that Trump have brought upon the country.

 

(Repeat the evidence and the unpacking as many times as you need.  There’s no set number here as to how many examples you must have or how many choices you must discuss in relation to meaning.)

Conclusion/Synthesis (This is just a suggestion and is not exhaustive nor the only thing students can do!  In no particular order, students may want to have the following in their conclusion:)

 

Return to the global issue at hand.  Why does it matter?

This is an issue that is present all around the world and leads us to question whether it is rational to let one person obtain too much power both politically and physically.

 

Return to the techniques and choices used by both authors in the extract and the body of work or whole work.  How is the global issue presented in both the work and the text?  Why?  Make sure this isn’t just a list of devices or features!

 

The global issue of how an excessive amount of power may distort the powerful and their moral values is portrayed in both works. The distortion of morals on Poseidon and Trump’s part is criticized in both works, and when these powers are challenged, these morals are further neglected, and fear is evoked. However, the literary work the Odyssey utilized Tone, Contrast and Imagery in order to emphasize on the literacy of the work while the non-literary work What Trump Wishes to Accomplish Before He Leaves the White House utilized Tone, Structure and Allusion to emphasize on compensating the issue of the corruption of power through neglecting moral issues

 

Try to synthesize what both authors have done in connection to the global issue.  What’s interesting or insightful about the ways in which they have explored the global issue?

 

Both authors have exposed the impacts of an excessive amount of power on governmental structures and Greek hierarchical structures. It is interesting how they both explored this topic when the source of power is in danger.

 

 

If you want to do so, go broad.  Why does all of this matter?  How might this connect to TOK?  What makes this worth studying? 

 

This connects to TOK in a way where it questions how people should make decisions: by emotion or through rationalization. It allows people to study which type of way we should look towards when making decisions.

 

 

Persepolis

Within the graphic novel Persepolis, Marjane Satrapi utilizes direct speech, graphic weight and facial expressions to portray the situation of the Islamic revolution in Iran.

The author – Satrapi – utilizes direct speech throughout the panels. In the third panel, the teacher can be seen with the words: “ let’s go children, on the heart!” this sentence was capitalized in order to keep consistency for the style of the artwork throughout the novel, however, the exclamation mark at the end of the sentence served as an emphasis in which highlighted the teacher’s harsh tone. By doing this, the author portrays the teacher as an obstinate figure with absolute hierarchy, thus evoking a negative impression upon the teacher from the audiences’ point of view.

 

 

 

An Analysis For Donnelly’s Carton ““Oh yeah? Well, Your Dad’s a … a… Feminist”

The lack of color is a significant aspect in Donnelly’s cartoon. From the black and white colors, Donnelly presents the concepts of male and female behaviors into -literally- black and white categories where the behaviors of individuals are restrictive. As the behaviors of males and females are labelled and separated by social norms, individuals are pressured to conform to such norms. With the lack of colors, Donnelly suggests that the collective vilification towards feminists have been socially accepted and broadcasted. However, Donnelly criticizes such misconceptions and overthrows expectations and obligations of certain genders in society.

 

Donnelly also utilizes body posture to highlight character relationships. The leaning motion supported with the use of emanata of one of the characters exhibit the aggressiveness of the character during speech and thus implies the offensive nature of the word feminism formed in the character’s mind. Such a misconception is entirely due to people’s tendency to conform to social norms and these social norms are almost always constructed through the stereotypes formed. In such context, the stereotype of feminists being associated with negative connotations is stressed through body posture and created due to patriarchal understandings of the society. Ultimately, through the means of communication, such distorted understandings will place its impact on feminists.

 

Finally, through tone and diction, Donnelly is able to emphasize on the significance of this issue. By incorporating the quote: “Oh yeah?  Well, your dad’s a … a… feminist”, Donnelly utilizes an immature, yet aggressive tone. With the condescending, colloquial expression of “Oh yeah?” the character talking attempts to anger the other figure and emphasizes the misconception that male figures have upon feminism and society as a whole. On the contrary, in “a… a… feminist” the use of ellipses suggests the naïve nature of children and how the intention of the child was to insult his peer. However, due to cultural influences, specifically, repetitive interactions with the word “feminism” , the child chose to use an unfamiliar word to pose a threat against his peer. This suggests the prevalence of such misconceptions in society; so significant that individuals from different age groups all possess the same misconception towards feminism. To this cause, feminists are extensively at risk of identity distortion.

An Analysis for “The Thing Around Your Neck”

The most prominent device used in “The Thing Around Your Neck” would be contrast. This was portrayed through the narrator and her boyfriend Juan as Juan displays immense interest in African poetry. However, the narrator asserts that “white people who liked Africa too much and those who liked Africa too little were the same – condescending”. As emphasized previously in the text, the narrator was brought up in Africa. These characters represent people from the African and the Western culture, so the underlying difference between the African and Western perspectives are thus highlighted. These differing perspectives insinuate possible misconceptions individuals obtain when unfamiliarity of cultures exist. While Juan may be genuinely attracted to African poetry, the narrator perceives such interest as offensive to her culture, displayed through the adjective “condescending”. A possible approach to cultural assimilation is perceived as an offense to racial equality. This eventually distorts one’s perception of self-identity and leads to the conformity to cultural stereotypes.

This is further enhanced through the means of allusion: “asking you out with him because your name rhymed with hakuna matata and The Lion King was the only maudlin movie he’d ever liked.” Adichie alludes to The Lion King, which was ironically produced through an American institute – Disney. Again, the differences between cultures are stressed and the apprehension towards the unfamiliar culture is displayed in the quote: “You didn’t know what The Lion King was”. Additionally, the use of the second person pronoun suggests the loss of identity of the narrator that occurred as a result of the distortion of self-identity forced upon her. Through this allusion, Adichie accentuates possible misconceptions people obtain towards another culture as a result of widespread stereotypes generated by Westerners.

Instances of symbolism are also presented in the text such as the extra-virgin olive oil: “His eyes were the color of extra-virgin olive oil, a greenish gold. Extra-virgin olive oil was the only thing you loved, you truly loved, in America.” Olive oils can be interpreted as an underlying symbol in Christianity that represent authority and glory. However, such authority and glory are concealed through Juan’s extra-virgin eyes. Another illustration of symbolism would be the figure of professor Cobbledick. The professor is portrayed as an ignorant, racially exclusive adult, who “didn’t have the expression of a person who thought himself better than the people knew about”. These authorial choices convey how misconceptions occur in both directions, towards both cultures, meaning conformity is also present  in both cultures. Similar misconceptions that misshape perceptions of identity is also seen in Donnelly’s cartoon, but with a focus on genders instead.

Notes on Liza Donnelly’s Cartoons

  • Lack of colors – the collective vilification towards feminists have been socially accepted and broadcasted. And the development of such stereotypes and overthrows expectations and obligations of certain genders in society.
  • Stereotyping – the mother is portrayed with the stereotypical view of females’ nature obligations to cook and do chores while the father is able to enjoy leisure time through reading the newspaper and stereotypes of their obligations to take care of their kid’s education
  • Captions – reveals the true purpose of why these stereotypical views are formed and suggests the extensiveness the misconception of feminism. Through the use of satire, Donnelly criticizes people’s conformity to mainstream views in society :which may be generic assumptions about a particular group.