IO Preparation

Amy Lu

Outline #1 – Zoom in and then zoom out

 

Use this outline if you find your argument works best by first zooming into the extract and then you want to zoom out to explore the whole work or body of work in connection to your global issue.  This structure also provides a clear separation between the extract and the larger work or body of work.

 

Narrowed Down Global Issue:

How does an excessive amount of power distort the powerful and their moral values?

 

Literary text: The Odyssey Book 5 (lines 285-320)

Non-Literary text: The Onion “What Trump Hopes To Accomplish Before Leaving The White House” (lines 1-15)

 

1-minute introduction (This is just a suggestion and is not exhaustive nor the only thing students can do!  In no particular order, students may want to have the following in their introduction:)

What is the global issue and how have you narrowed it down?

My global issue is: how does an excessive amount of power distort the powerful and their moral values? This global issue aims to investigate the impacts of power on the powerful: both politically and in terms of mortality and immortality.

What is the summary/description of the “whole” literary work you’ve chosen?  Write 1-2 bullet points.

The Odyssey is an epic poem that mainly illustrates the journey of Odysseus. The main hero of the story – Odysseus – was swayed away from home as a punishment for blinding Poseidon’s son. After series of tangents and obstacles, Odysseus arrived back in Ithaca and reunited with his wife and his son.

What is the summary/description of this particular extract you’ve chosen and why? Write 1-2 bullet points.

Poseidon found out that the other gods have changed their decision to what they should do towards Odysseus’ fate. Odysseus then expresses his misery and despair towards his current circumstances far away from home.

 What is the summary/description of the “whole” non-literary body of work you’ve chosen?  Write 1-2 bullet points.

What is the summary/description of this particular extract you’ve chosen and why? Write 1-2 bullet points.

This non-literary work exposes Donald Trump’s irrational and selfish behaviors after he found out that Joe Biden had won the 2020 presidential election. Though by text, this article does not reflect these behaviors, but the clear satirical tone had suggested otherwise.

 What is the link or connection between the literary and the non-literary work/text and how do they connect to the global issue in question?

Trump’s irrational behaviors reflect his inability to accept that he lost and his refusal to act for the greater good for the country. As he is currently still in hold of the American presidential position, he is making irrational decisions to try to overthrow the current circumstances in the United States for him to regain power. This questions his moral boundaries as his decisions have caused thousands of American citizens to die each day from COVID-19. Poseidon’s response to Odysseus’ damage to his son was violence. Poseidon used violence to stop violence, and this was achieved only through the immortal powers that he possesses in his hands. This leads us to question whether Poseidon would respond in the same way if he was not an immortal. Additionally, as Poseidon is of a leading figure in Greek mythology, when he steps out of his moral boundaries, this will impact the mortals and distort their moral boundaries.

What is your thesis or main claim?  Alternatively, what is a question you could pose that would frame your exploration? 

An excessive amount of power will distort one’s moral boundaries, especially when one’s power is challenged.

2-minute literary extract discussion zooming in on specific and detailed examples of the author’s choices in connection to the global issue

 

Main claim/argument for this portion of the IO:

 Poseidon’s immortal power vs. Odysseus’ mortal power. Poseidon’s immortal power is challenged when Odysseus kills his son. This is mainly he reason why he is so angry and acts so irrationally.

 Piece(s) of evidence to support the claim/argument:

“This is outrageous! So it seems the gods have changed their plans about Odysseus while I was absent!”

“I will goad him to more misery”

“I will have a sea of sufferings before I reach my homeland”

“I can hold on to one thing: certain death”

Unpacking of the evidence – Name the formal or technical choice(s) in your evidence and add your analysis and interpretation of how meaning is created:

 

syntax and diction – question marks, exclamation marks, reflects the unknown nature of Odysseus’ journey and Poseidon’s power

Contrast; imagery – contrast between tone of Odysseus and Poseidon. People with power and without power, the differences between them and how Odysseus is placed at a disadvantage.

Metaphor – crashing waves, sea of sufferings, reflects the differences between the powers of immortal power and mortal power

 

(Repeat the evidence and the unpacking as many times as you need.  There’s no set number here as to how many examples you must have or how many choices you must discuss in relation to meaning.)

 

 

 

2-minute whole literary work discussion zooming out on larger authorial choices in connection to the global issue

 

Main claim/argument for this portion of the IO:

As one’s power is challenged, fear is developed that this power would be taken from him, therefore under the impacts of fear, the powerful tend to distort their senses of morality and what could be considered as correct.

Piece(s) of evidence to support the claim/argument: Book 5 Lines 285-320

“He cried out in despair, ‘More pain? How will it end? I am afraid’”

I wish I had died that same day”

“but now I have to die this cruel death!”
“Then for a long time rushing, crashing waves kept him submerged: he could not reach the surface”

 

Unpacking of the evidence – Name the broader authorial choices or how the choices in the extract are continued in the whole literary work.  Make sure to add your analysis and interpretation of how meaning is created:

 

Tone – angry, emotional tone of Poseidon, Odysseus’ despair. How power grants Poseidon right to be angry while Odysseus can only be in despair under such disadvantages.

Contrast – Contrast between mortals and immortals and the hierarchal system of their power in Greece. The fear and respect of the mortals towards the immortals

Imagery – The waves represent Poseidon’s power as Poseidon is the god of the sea and earthquakes, it suggests how Odysseus was constrained by Poseidon’s power and refrained from defending himself.

 

(Repeat the evidence and the unpacking as many times as you need.  There’s no set number here as to how many examples you must have or how many choices you must discuss in relation to meaning.)

2-minute non-literary extract discussion zooming in on specific and detailed examples of the author’s choices in connection to the global issue

 

Main claim/argument for this portion of the IO:

 

Trump’s irrational response after realizing Biden’s victory in the presidential elections reflected one’s fall from high political power. Trump’s selfish acts exposes his completely neglected moral boundaries

 

Piece(s) of evidence to support the claim/argument:

 

“Hold yard sale to raise money for legal battles and recounts”

“Honor the hapless boys and girls in intelligence by listening to even one morning briefing”

 

Unpacking of the evidence – Name the formal or technical choice(s) in your evidence and add your analysis and interpretation of how meaning is created:

Bullet point – structured like a bucket list, warns readers about the ongoing issue.

Exaggeration – adds to the satirical tone which reflects trump’s tendency to lie in front of the public

Allusion – alludes to the bible and trump’s campaign pledge, refers back to previous promises that he had made when he was still in power.

The inability to realize promises of trumps’ part is an act out of selfishness, caused by challenges of Trump’s power by Joe Biden.

 

(Repeat the evidence and the unpacking as many times as you need.  There’s no set number here as to how many examples you must have or how many choices you must discuss in relation to meaning.)

 

 

2-minute body of work discussion zooming out on larger authorial choices in connection to the global issue

Main claim/argument for this portion of the IO:

Trump’s power is challenged by Joe Biden who won the presidential elections recently. As his power is challenged, Trump completely discarded his perception of morality and is purposely making negative impacts on the countries.

 

Piece(s) of evidence to support the claim/argument:

“Get his father’s ghost to say one kind thing

Unpacking of the evidence – Name the broader authorial choices or how the choices in the extract are continued in the whole literary work.  Make sure to add your analysis and interpretation of how meaning is created:

 

Tone – Uses a satirical and humorous tone to approach such a politically sensitive issue so the readers would react positively.

Structure – clear, concise structure for readers to be attracted to this onion article as this is a commonly discussed topic nowadays.

Allusion – positive influences are alluded to, therefore highlighting the negative impacts that Trump have brought upon the country.

 

(Repeat the evidence and the unpacking as many times as you need.  There’s no set number here as to how many examples you must have or how many choices you must discuss in relation to meaning.)

Conclusion/Synthesis (This is just a suggestion and is not exhaustive nor the only thing students can do!  In no particular order, students may want to have the following in their conclusion:)

 

Return to the global issue at hand.  Why does it matter?

This is an issue that is present all around the world and leads us to question whether it is rational to let one person obtain too much power both politically and physically.

 

Return to the techniques and choices used by both authors in the extract and the body of work or whole work.  How is the global issue presented in both the work and the text?  Why?  Make sure this isn’t just a list of devices or features!

 

The global issue of how an excessive amount of power may distort the powerful and their moral values is portrayed in both works. The distortion of morals on Poseidon and Trump’s part is criticized in both works, and when these powers are challenged, these morals are further neglected, and fear is evoked. However, the literary work the Odyssey utilized Tone, Contrast and Imagery in order to emphasize on the literacy of the work while the non-literary work What Trump Wishes to Accomplish Before He Leaves the White House utilized Tone, Structure and Allusion to emphasize on compensating the issue of the corruption of power through neglecting moral issues

 

Try to synthesize what both authors have done in connection to the global issue.  What’s interesting or insightful about the ways in which they have explored the global issue?

 

Both authors have exposed the impacts of an excessive amount of power on governmental structures and Greek hierarchical structures. It is interesting how they both explored this topic when the source of power is in danger.

 

 

If you want to do so, go broad.  Why does all of this matter?  How might this connect to TOK?  What makes this worth studying? 

 

This connects to TOK in a way where it questions how people should make decisions: by emotion or through rationalization. It allows people to study which type of way we should look towards when making decisions.

 

 

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