Text types and its significance

Text Type: Recipe  


  • To inform a precise record of ingredients used, the amount needed, and the way how they are formed.  
  • To introduce a new methodology to the audience, especially using visual elements of the source. 







  • Name of a recipe 
  • Photo and images of a recipe and procedures  
  • Ingredients needed for a recipe. 
  • Procedure how to cook a recipe step by step as listing the amount of ingredients.  
  • Cooking time and difficulty 
  • Safety issues 
  • Nutrition of a recipe 
  • Additional information (such as history of a recipe)  




  • Informative and neutral tone  
  • Logics with Specific numbers 


Structure and Layout:  

  1. Name of a recipe 
  1. Introduction of a recipe (Where does it start from? When do you eat? 
  1. List required ingredients 
  1. Explain how to cook with several photos or images to understand easily  


Additional information such as history of a recipe should be included before the list of the ingredients. Photos could be used as many as possible.  

















Text Type: News report  


  • To inform readers what is happening around the world or regions. Mostly, they are “recent” stories.  







  • It is combination of four elements: facts, context, impact, and emotion. 
  • Topic issue which will be reported (Headline)  
  • 5W1H (Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?) of an event 
  • Details and more information of the event, especially Why? and How?  




  • Can be both Neutral and lopsided. 
  • Not much difficult to read even for children (Utilizing simple and precise words) 
  • Based on facts, quotes, and other resources  
  • If Neutral… 
  • Informative Tone 
  • Logical facts including numbers 
  • If Lopsided… 
  • Informative/Critical/Supportive Tone 
  • Engagement of Personal Perspective 
  • Structure and Layout:  
  1. Introduce an event 
  1. Explain what it is about 
  1. More details about the event  
  1. Unimportant information at the ending of the report 

Related photos could be included between paragraphs 

















Text Type: Acknowledgments  


  • To thank to the audience of the writing especially to the people who helped for writing 
  • express the appreciation in a concise manner and to avoid strong emotive language 



  • The section at the beginning of your thesis formatting where you show your appreciation for the people who contributed to your project. 


  • First Person View 
  • Specific mention of the relationship between the author and the audience 

Structure and Layout:  

  • Immediately After Table of Contents 



























Text Type: Magazine  


  • To inform and educate readers specific topics 
  • Tentertain readers as offering information  




  • Can include various fields: cooking, sports, science, social study, entertainment, etc.  
  • Some magazines include diverse topics, while other magazines focus on one specific topic  




  • Could be various; the authors can write with formal or informal language.  
  • The point of view is also various. Some writers use first person, but other authors also use third person.  


Structure and Layout: 

  • Cover pages (Title in big font)  
  • A table of contents, columns, an introduction of the magazine written by the editor 
  • Expand contents of the magazine. It can include interview, topic related images,  
  • End of the content (Puzzles or quizzes could be included)  

























Text Type: Maps 


  • To show geographic features of a specific area or a country. 
  • To guide the audience to the correct space 



  • Geographic features of an area 
  • Can be a region or a country. It can show the whole world.  
  • Symbols 




  • Neutral tone of introducing a specific area 


Structure and Layout:  

  • Symbols of a specific area such as hospital, commercial district, school, park, etc.  
  • Title, Map scalecompass and direction, latitude and longitude lines (such as the equator), etc. 






























Text Type: Photographs  


  • To record the certain moment/scene of the event.  




  • A photograph is an image created by light falling on a photosensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or a CMOS chip 




  • Representative Title (Symbolism) 


Structure and Layout:  

  • Photographs 
  • Brief explanation of the photos (Location/Place, what is on the picture, To show what)  





























Text Type: Textbook 


  • To educate readers about the topic/theme of a textbook.  
  • To inform the professional knowledge in easier way using diagrams, symbols, language, etc. 



  • Deliver information/facts of the topic/theme 
  • Explains jargons with definition.  
  • May include related images, graphs, data, etc to explain the concepts.  




  • Informative and neutral tone  
  • Usage of Jargons 


Structure and Layout:  

  • Introduction/Writer’s block/Acknowledgement, Contents of the textbook, explanations (with images, graphs, data tables, etc), Appendix  



























Text Type: Infographic  


  • To provide an overview of a topic (research or data) 
  • To compare previous data and new data 
  • To explain a complicated topic in a simple way  
  • To summarize a long text  



  • Topic related information/research/data 
  • Includes charts, bullet points, images, etc.  
  • Format for each purpose of infographic – business, timeline, comparison, information, statistics, etc.  



Structure and Layout:  

  • Using charts and minimal texts  
  • Comparison between research/data  









Semester 1 Reflection

For past 1 semester, we have focused on working on IO and other literary, non-literary works including the book, The Odyssey and Short Story Collections from Chimamanda Ngozi Achichie, and the website post, The onions.

During the IO practice, there were some hardships faced due to some internal and external reasons. The most difficult hardship to overcome was time management. IO allowed us to have some time for practice and to memorize certain range of the presentation. Thereby, I also practiced , but I failed to manage time during the practice IO that I stayed up all night and could not concentrate. From the lesson I learned during practice IO, in the actual performance, I could perform better quality; however, it was still not that satisfying.

For the next year, we are now starting practicing on Paper 1 of the IB Final Exam. Succeeding the time management that not overturning the mistake, I will attempt to perform the better job in paper 1.

Paper 2 Outline Practice

Jay Cho

Ms. Abdallah

English Lang&Lit ASL

December 14, 2020

How do two of the works you have studied portray the struggle to be understood?


Both literary text the Odyssey and American Born Chinese portray each protagonist’s struggle by utilizing literary devices in order to indicate how they challenge and overcome the hardships.

American Born Chinese:

Jin moves to America and confronts racial discrimination and his internal conflict of his identity.

The Odyssey:

Odysseus faces his hardship during the journey back to Ithaca and tries to overcome.

Text 1 (American Born Chinese):

  1. Motif of racism: “My momma says Chinese people eat dogs.” (Page 31) & “Hmph, stay away from my dog.” (Page 32)

It shows a discrimination lead by racial reasons, and also bullying classmates with Chinese stereotypes

  1. Changing from Jin to Danny (Page 194): He tries to become as a Western kid that he ignores and avoids his true identity. This symbolizes the ignorance of victims and their will to remove discriminations toward themselves.
  2. Symbol of Chin-Kee: In page 205, Danny faces his true identity, displaying Chinese identity. This scene portrays Danny’s internal conflict within the experience of discrimination, and as well as Chin-Kee argues to lead Danny overcome the fake identity.


Text 2 (The Odyssey):

  1. Dramatic Irony: “My name is Noman. My family and friends all call me Noman.” (Book 9, Line 366-367) Odysseus names himself as “Noman” which is ironic since himself is a well-known person, and the other characters in the story do not recognize him.
  2. Simile: “As when a blacksmith dips an axe or adze to temper it in ice-cold water; loudly it shrieks. From this, the iron takes on its power. So did his eyeball crackle on the spear.” (Book 9, Line 391-394) The utilization of language in the passage displays the emotion of Odyssey who’s struggling to escape from Polyphemus. Blinding Polyphemus made Odysseus’ journey back to Ithaca to become more difficult. He and his crew had challenged many hardships during the journey.
  3. First person point of view: “I took my spear and sharp sword, and I ran up from the ship to higher ground, to look for signs of humans, listening for voices. I climbed up to a crag, and I saw smoke rising from Circe’s palace, form the earth up through the woods and thickets. I considered if I should go down and investigate, since I had seen the smoke.” (Book 10, Line 146-153)

Utilization of first-person point of view allows the audience to focus on the narrator’s storyline and its perspective. This often can lead to biased opinion from the audience towards the conflict the protagonist may have. This also evokes sense of pathos as brining out an effect of agreement and adding vividity in the narration of the journey.


American Born Chinese: Through Jin/Danny’s story and the short symbolisms in his actions, the author portrays external and internal conflict occurs due to the racial discrimination from the society.

Odyssey: This short story displays the specific stories about hardships that Odysseus confronts during his journey in First-person narrative and as well as other literary devices into the text.

SODEXO reveals the secret to success in the culinary field 

SODEXO is one of the best culinary companies in China, and they have recently released their secret to success! Here are the four key points to success shared by four anonymous chefs, they have shared their story, and now let’s explore this journeyBut SHHH let’s not share this secret with everyone 



You have completed the interview test of SODEXO and now have this new job. You first go into this unrealistically gargantuan warehouse located at the back of the kitchen and see massive amounts of vegetables and meat all piled up in the corner. They seem to be at least a month-worth of meal. According to your boss, you are supposed to approximately equally distribute these cabbages, pork meat and appetizers to the students every day for lunch until it all runs out. Although skeptical, you have no choice but to obey boss’s orders not to lose this job. As your first task of the day, you take out the cargo filled with vegetables and start cutting it into smaller pieces. Only after around 6 hours of cutting were you able to complete this job. While cutting, questions such as “How can these students eat these same and unoriginal foods for school meals almost every day? Don’t they get tired of it?” wanders around in your head. Boss says it’s what he calls the “Healthy Dietary Plan” where he wants students to eat veggies and nutritious articles of food to help them invigorate and strengthen their health. 


International Perspective 

You’ve graduated from Le Cordon Bleu culinary school in France for five years, and the Chinese government invites you to come across the globe and join ISB, or the International School with Bestlunch, as an intern chef. In ISBthe school offers you 5000 dollars per day because your skills match up the bottom 10%, so ISB indeed provides you a great opportunity to learn proficient cooking techniques. Now it’s your turn to cook global dishes that you have learned – but in Chinese style. Your job is to cook the food that school designed for you in the best quantity and quality while incorporate the lowest budget as possible. For example, you must overcook every strand of spaghetti and apply the least amount of sauce as possible to assimilate the traditional Chinese cuisine. Then, you need to set the price at 30 Kuai as a price floor for gaining more revenue. We will use all the money to purchase decent materials, so students can obtain lunch made from resources with the best quality! 



Today is your first day on the job, and the first thing you are introduced to in the kitchen are sacks of potatoes. You’re shaken from the 300 sacks of potatoes in the kitchen, you ask why there are so many potatoes, and you are given the answer that potatoes are healthy vegetables – perfect for students– your boss immediately gives you your first job of the day: peeling potatoes. You hurl the sacks of potatoes over your shoulder and try to stand up, the weight of the potato is pulling you right down through the earth’s core. With the help of ten additional colleaguesyou finally moved the potatoes outside. As you sit on one of the cafeteria’s blue chairs to peel potatoes, you observe the students who passed by. A girl with neon green hair flew past…A boy with earrings walked by…Your colleague passes by and gives you some advice: give more potatoes to students who are skinner and give less potatoes to students who are obese. After 12 hours of peeling, you hurl sacks of ready-peeled potatoes into the kitchen. You are given the task to make potato noodles, so you cut the potatoes into pieces and throw them all into a pot. You decidnot to put in any salt; after all, the cafeteria offers an entire counter just for seasonings. This is an amazing opportunity for the students to DIY their own potato noodle! At the end of the day, your boss tastes your first-ever dish on the job and decides that he should retire and lend his position to you.  


Different seasonings  

The only thing now you need to do for your food is to season your food and offer to the students. You have mustard and ketchup, mayonnaise, pepper, and salts to do so. No sugars since we need to keep sugar-free food. You can choose either white salt, pink salt, garlic salt, or any other unique salts you want. Fancy salts raise its value for your elegant career in this extravagant school. 

Having read the advice and stories from the four top-notch chefs in the field, what have you discovered through their stories? 

Articles from The School of Life

Mental Illness and ‘Reasons to Live’

I chose this article as it relates to my IB life a lot. This suggests some reasons I need to endure current “live”.

The Role of Sleep in Mental Health

I often consider sleep as unnecessary element in mental health, justifies itself as ability of endurance. This suggests a new way of visualizing sleeping as the role in mental health, to consider of its importance.

On Luxury and Sadness

I love cooking foods, and it showed its connection into the emotion and the visual effect of those foods, considering psychological effect.

Winners and Losers in the Race of Life

Direct and Assertive language that categorizes people into “winners” and “losers” motivates the IB diploma students to think of their position as reading through the article. The guideline the article provides allows the audience, to the students, to improve their weaknesses.

How to Go to Bed Earlier

Connecting to the second article that I chose, I am experiencing serious sleep deprivation. This article may allow me to realize some solutions to sleep earlier and attempt (even I am writing this post at 4 AM).

Virtual Dinners: Conversation Menus

As online/virtual meeting has been active due to pandemic, this article’s guideline is a good way to attempt for better relationships with others.

How to Argue in Relationships

During stressful IB years, sometimes we get emotional and cause some arguments. Not to end the relationship due to small engagement of emotional effects, the article suggests the way to control the argument among partners.

How We Choose a Partner

The article suggests the partnership relies on people’s instinct. Somehow it may be truth; however, there are more external in real life. However, the article still contains good advices that may help consideration.

I’m a fan Analysis – Christoph Waltz



I’m a fan of opening my eyes and ears.

I’m a fan of paying attention

I’m a fan of precision

I’m a fan of trying to avoid being mediocrity

I’m a fan of Henry Hathaway

I’m a fan of Moriah

I’d like to play doctor who

I’m a fan of Stephen Sondheim music

I’m a fan of Stephen Sondheim lyrics

  • Repetition of I’m a fan of…
    • Emphasizing the meaning of “fan” in each different terms
  • Zoom in, No Musics, Rule of Third
    • Focus onto voice and Christoph Waltz himself.
    • Focusing on his facial Expression
  • Paying Attention, Precision, Opening my eyes and ears
    • Expressing Waltz’s characteristic
  • Henry Hathaway, Stephen Sondheim, Moriah
    • Literal meaning of fan

Start of G12 (English)

The hardship I faced during fast 7 months was staying at home. Since I should stay at home for long time, there were some hardships to keep my weight constant or study by myself when there’s no classes on zoom. The highlights or successes that I made was that I completed my EE. It felt hard to manage things including time, weight, grade, etc.

Which of these texts was your favorite and why?
Carol Ann Duffy’s poems. There were lots of collections related feminism, and it was interesting to analyze

Which ones do you think you might want to focus on in the final individual oral presentation?
As mentioned it first question, I’d like to focus on feminism lens and gender inequalities within the texts.

Which assessments tasks are you best at? Which do you still need to work on?
I don’t feel confident in any of assessments/tasks yet; thus, I still need to work for improvement including paper 1, IO, etc.

Three things that you already know about this collection of texts.
– It deals with social issues including gender discrimination, corruption, etc.
– Context
– It highlights overwhelming power of someone such as the god in the odyssey. 

Two things that you want to know about this collection of texts.
– The major themes of the books
– The connections

One question or concern that you have about this collection of texts.
I feel concern that for how to analyze all of them. (It might take long and will hard to do so)


I want to achieve at least 6 out of 7 in paper 1 of both final exam and IO. In order to get those grades, I will continue working on memorizing essay-related vocabularies. Also, during Covid-19 pandemic, there weren’t that much chances to “speak” in English that there was a mention about my improvement of pronunciation on comment; therefore, I will continue practicing more for fluent pronunciation of speaking (especially for IO).

The World’s Wife

For the last two weeks, we had an opportunity to go through 6 representative poems from The World’s Wife, the collection of Carol Ann Duffy. The poems were based on well-known people or tales, and were adapted through feminist lens that Carol Ann Duffy usually uses. From this collection, we could go on six poems: Salome, Havisham, Anne Hathaway, Penelope, Delilah, and Medusa.

  • Salome
    • I did not like some vivid expressions that Carol Ann Duffy described for gore words, and the story of itself wasn’t that satisfied as well. Her actions that being emotionless was too repulsive to me, thus I did not prefer this poem. (This poem drove me crazy that the expression was too vivid that I could imagine that scene)
  • Havisham
    • The theme of this poem is about betrayal. One of the theme that I personally like is a betrayal. Emotions of Miss Havisham expressed by Carol Ann Duffy due to being betrayed by her fiance who promised to return was a great expression and could be sympathized since I knew the original story of this poem, and could compare and contrast the expressions.
  • Anne Hathaway
    • This is my favorite poem among six the poems. Although Carol Ann Duffy is a feminist author, in this poem, the respect towards William Shakespeare was shown in the text, and the expressions about that second best bed touched my mind, being sympathized through death of William Shakespeare in Anne Hathaway’s perspective.
  • Penelope
    • The poem visualizes the process of how Penelope drives independence from her husband. This process was shown as threading and desiring her other available activities out of her husband’s control. The expressions were interesting that compare to other poems, the woman in Penelope was viewed as powerless woman.
  • Delilah
    • The theme of this poem is a betrayal. Even though I like the theme, the graphic expressions that shown for woman power and her control lead me to not be sympathized to Delilah. In my perspective, Delilah was just a woman who desired for a power; thus, I did not like this poem.
  • Medusa
    • This poem was interesting that I already knew the story from Greek methodology, and could compare and sight through new perspective. In Greek methodology, Medusa is just a monster has a tragic story; however, summarizing how tragic she is in her perspective sympathized my to engage in poem more.

Covid-19 Updates

During a past month, there weren’t much change in my life. Although we couldn’t go to school, there were still classes through zoom, there were still bunch of homework to do, etc. The one change, however, I could experience is since we have less classes and thus more time in home, I had more time to do some activities or hobbies that I wanted to do.

I love this life-cycle but I still miss the class in the classroom that we had -not through zoom meeting.