Category: Science (page 1 of 2)

Polymer Journal #5


How to create medimer by daniel



Polymer Prototype #6 was our most successful prototype. After the polymer was made, it was a firm, smooth, sticky to itself, and very moldable. It had all the traits we needed for a medical polymer, in case we needed to wrap it around a finger, mold it as a cast, or stick it over a bruise for protection. We ran several tests on this, one it had to be sterile. We didn’t want mold growing on it or anything coming out of it that could infect any cuts or injuries. This was our residue test, our goal was to make it so the polymer kept to itself and did not leave any residue like liquid, color marks, or parts of itself. Prototype 6 passed this test, it was very clean and simple, it would be perfectly safe and sterile for injuries. Next, we wanted to test the firmness, if it was able to protect an injury. We tested this with one of my less favorite tests. I would get punched in the shoulder, and then have the polymer stuck there and get punched in the same spot. The polymer successfully reduced the pain from the punch evidently concluding that it was shockproof to a certain extent. Our last test was how long it would stick around injuries, this test made sure that the polymer could be used for longer durations. The injury we focused this test around was the jammed finger, we wrapped our polymer around the finger and bonded 2 fingers together to keep the injured finger still. We waited to see if the polymer would loosen up or slip off. It successfully maintained its latch to my fingers and provided its process for an entire class. Lastly, we obviously ran tests that benefitted customer satisfaction. We played around with the polymer for a long time, and it was not at all a mess, like I said, it was a firm smooth polymer that loved to stick with itself, but was good with not getting messy and sticking to everything else it touches. We also tested its sustainability, we wanted to see how many times we could reuse it for. For 4 classes, we put it on as a cast for 15 minutes and sealed it away, each time, the polymer worked correctly with no gradual defects as it aged. The guar gum is a galactomannan polysaccharide extract that alters the polymer to thicken and stabilize its current properties. This helps the polymer because according to an area of science called material science. The polymer itself has a lot of elasticity and firmness, but according to the physics of the polymer, it has a balanced range of elastic deformation and plastic deformation. This means that with relative smaller forces applied to the polymer, the polymer will rearrange back into its former shape, but if a more powerful force is applied, then it passes the plastic deformation point and causes permanent change. So this is technically not a nonnewtonian fluid, but its physical properties certainly differ from other slimes. This allows the polymer to wrap around fingers and at the same time hold its current shape. So to sum up, prototype 6 was our best polymer due to its functional physical properties, reliability, and customer satisfaction traits.


Overall, I think my team’s product pitch to the dream on team was successful. We addressed all parts needed: Originality, sustainability, and quality. If I were to do something different, I would probably try to be more prepared. It was my fault that i was unaware that the product pitch was on Tuesday and it caused me to hurry and not present my best. The whole polymer was pretty good, we successfully created a polymer that matched all traits and properties that we wanted. Maybe if we spent more time altering the traits, we could produce more types of the polymer for different purposes outside of the medical use. Our soft polymer did not have the most sustainable ingredients, it included 100 mL of PVA glue and 15 mL of borax, which are both not sustainable ingredients. The other ingredients are cornstarch and guar gum. Even though its not made of the most sustainable ingredients, we tested several times that it could be easily reused over and over, as long as once you were finished, you put it into a sealed bag. This makes the polymer more sustainable so you dont need to use wasteful ingredients everytime you make a new one. Lastly, our hardshell polymer is made of recycled polymers which is really sustainable.

Polymer Journal #4

Polymer Prototypes by daniel

Polymer Journal #3

Our Polymer by daniel

To further elaborate, the traits we want for our first polymers are dryness, ability to stick to itself, firm, and flexibility. These traits will allow our first polymer to be the nice comfortable inside of any cast or patch for injuries. The traits will make it so the polymer will not be stick to everything but have the perfect firmness and flexibility to wrap around any part of the body and provide it with protection. As of the second polymer, we will be making it used from recycled plastics. The traits we are trying to achieve for this polymer is that it is very hard and study, has a cylindrical shape and has a hallow tunnel through it. These traits will allow the first polymer and the finger to be secured by a hard shell on the outside. With it’s very strong and durable physical features, as well as the softer polymer inside too, combined, it will provide its maximum protection for different parts of the body.

Our plan to develop different these prototypes is by using a trial and error process. For example, our prototype one was very watery and not as stretchy as we would like, those were the cons of the polymer. With that information, we changed small sections of our procedure to make, and attempt to correct those problems. We will use this method, and plan each next prototype based on information of past prototypes, this means that even though many of these prototypes are complete failures, these failures provide us with the data and information we need to succeed.

We will test the polymers by recording and observing how well it does in real situations. Like how long it will last, how long it takes before it dries, how durable is it against force, etc… By testing the prototype with these questions, we see if the polymer is fit to be used in real life.

Polymer Journal #2

medical polymer by daniel
To satisfy the goals we have made in the infographic above, my group and I will perform several trial and error tests on our polymer, with each trial, we learn more, and we get closer to our perfect polymer. For our polymer to be successful, it has to have traits very similar to the ones listed above: Relatively sticky (able to stick to itself and other substances without being too messy), moldable, dry, sterile, bendable, flexible, strong, stretchy, and firm. This means, our base polymer will be gloop because the base traits of gloop are the closest to the traits we need. It is relatively sticky, dry, bendable, flexible, and sticky. And by using the formula of gloop, we can alter the traits of that polymer by changing the ingredients. This way, for minor injuries in any situation, the polymer can be used to mold fingers in a cast, patch cuts, and scratches, or protect bruises. Once we have created a polymer that matches that description, it can be used in various situations and problems. Waiting hours or even days for jammed fingers to stop hurting, having to constantly reattach bandaids, wasting material, useless trips to the hospital, and damaging the injury even more, will be nothing but a past pest as our polymer will be designed to prevent those scenarios.

To make infographics like the one above, go to

Polymer Journal #1


About Polymers by daniel

As of 2019, polymers are seen through the eyes of common citizens as many things such as pointless slimes, wasteful plastics, and “weird science substances”. But what people don’t know is that polymers can be used to create new groundbreaking and innovative substances, whether its use is to solve daily issues or just for fun. The science and overall use of polymers create an inventive society for us to strive in.

Aside from the infinite possibilities polymers give us have, their atomic structure is just as interesting as their potential. So what is a polymer? To start out small, the big picture in the infographic above is a polymer, it may look very complex, but the actual structural pattern of a polymer is very simple. The basic physical properties for polymers can vary depending on which type it is. Some can be sticky, some can be bouncy, others can be gooey, etc; and that is the greatness of polymers, as, through science, you can create a polymer with numerous physical traits of your desire and serve meaningful purposes. But to be more specific, a polymer is a large molecule that consists of many smaller molecules called monomers, it is a very useful concept and it can be many different substances. Polymers are seen everywhere in our daily lives to the point where they are almost crucial to our daily needs. Nylon, polyethylene, and several types of plastics.

Now the next step to understanding polymers is how they are made. A monomer is a very polyfunctional molecule that is very reactive to any other molecule that is the same as itself. And as these monomers continue bonding to molecules the same as itself, it creates a very long chain of the monomer and becomes a polymer. An example of this is a substance called cornstarch in water, otherwise known as “oobleck”. Oobleck is a very interesting science phenomenon as when you add cornstarch in water, you create a substance that is neither a solid or a liquid, but a non-newtonian fluid. This meaning that the properties of the substance do not follow the laws predicted by Sir Isaac Newton. As the amount of force changes, the viscosity changes: as you apply more force to the substance, it hardens, as you apply less force to the substance, it softens. The reason that is, is because the monomers composing the oobleck behave that way when bonded with each other with water mixed in. In experiments, we used polyvinyl alcohol with borax to create slime. The PVA contained the monomers, they bonded with each other when they came in contact with each other to form long strings of that molecule. The borax influenced its physical properties and made it have slime like properties. This combination of substances creates slime. The properties of this slime can be bouncy, stretchy, non-stretchy, sticky, slippery, stringy, “rubbery”, or “liquidy” depending on the amounts of each substance you mix together.

Another branch of polymers are called synthetic polymers, these synthetic polymers are polymers that are human-made, they can be divided into 4 main categories of thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, and synthetic fibers. While natural polymers are usually water-based including silk and DNA, synthetic polymers are usually derived from petroleum oil and include nylon, polyethylene, polyester, Teflon, and epoxy. A great example of a synthetic polymer is polyester because it is very common in our daily life, you can find polyester in a lot of the fabrics you use and wear. Polyester was created by scientists through a reaction between acid and alcohol. Another great example of a synthetic polymer is plastic, obviously, plastic is used a lot in our daily lives to the point where in many cases, it is overused. Through a process of polymerization or polycondensation, plastics are made from natural materials such as cellulose, coal, oil, etc… Now, all synthetic materials are made from natural resources. They become synthetic material when they are chemically changed. For example, one type of process that turns natural resources into synthetic materials is called polymerization. That is when 2 resources combine or cause to combine to form a polymer. And that is when a natural resource becomes a synthetic material.

Works Cited:

katlday. “Unsafe Slime? How Bad Is Borax, Really?” The Chronicle Flask, 28 Dec. 2018,

World, Physics, director. What Is a Polymer? YouTube, YouTube, 6 Aug. 2012,

Lowe, Elizabeth D. “Polyester.” LoveToKnow,

Johnson, Todd. “What is a Polymer?” ThoughtCo, updated Jan 18, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019,

Carnegie Mellon.”Natural vs Synthetic Polymers” Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved May 12, 2019,

“How Plastics are Made” PlasticsEurope. Retrieved May 12, 2019,

If you want to make infographics like the one on the top, go to


Future Solar System Mission Proposal

Nasa should focus their future solar system missions on one of Jupiter’s moons, Europa, and one of Saturn’s moons, Enceladus. The most essential thing to life is water and sunlight, all known organisms need it whether it is tiny microscopic bacteria or giant roaming creatures. Europa is one of the best candidates for a life wielding inhabitable environment. Europa was always thought to have a very large salted ocean under its frozen crust, and after a close look through the spacecraft Galileo, there were several signs of plumes emerging from the surface of Europa during its orbit around Europa. With several sightings through the close encounters the Galileo had with Europa’s surface and the Hubble Deep Field telescope, many plumes were repeatedly seen. Many of the areas were well in the inhabitable living range as Elizabeth Turtle, a research scientist said,” [the subsurface ocean] is likely the most habitable part of Europa because it is warmer and it is protected from the radiation environment by the ice shell.” Similarly to Europa, past Enceladus’s thick atmosphere, lakes, and rivers of liquid methane, there is believed to be an ocean beneath the icy surface. There have been both very old and new discoveries clouds of vapors studied through the Cassini spacecraft. The geyser-like hydrogen molecules are most likely coming from chemical reactions from the ice and water creating microscopic organisms. Discovering hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the moons is significantly important because this combination could come from underwater microbes creating methane gas like microbes on earth. Both Europa and Enceladus have all the factors contributing to giving it the perfect possibility for those two moons to inhabit life. Not only do the oceans have similar qualities, but they also are very vast. With the endless amount of species on our planet’s oceans, there are big possibilities of the two moons holding life. No matter if it is small bacteria or an intelligent creature, the smallest sign of life on outside of Earth is groundbreaking, starting with Europa and Enceladus, the thought of extraterrestrial life will be no longer be science fiction.







Enceladus’s Plumes

Europa’s Plumes


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