All of my film projects

FIVE SHOTS

 

 

The five shots of the sequence were ECU, CU, MS, OTS, and an interesting shot.

 

ECU is the first shot of the sequence. An extreme close-up is shot with a tightly focused view with only few features of a character or an object visible. The entire screen is filled with a single feature, like a character’s eyes or mouth. The shot is very zoomed in and focused by having the background blurred. The ECU displays the context of the video so that the audience is able to predict what might happen. A visual representation of his technique is visible in the movie “James bond – Skyfall”. In the introductory credits of the film, the camera tightly and constantly zooms into James Bond’s eyes to show another scene of the introduction. Extreme close-ups can also apply to an object, like a bug crawling on a wall or a leaf or a pair of scissors cutting a bomb wire.

 

 

The next shot was the CU shot. It isn’t as focused as the ECU but had a slightly wider range of view but still having it focused. The closeup aims at creating a strong connection to the subject’s humanity with a person’s emotions clearly visible on the screen. Close-ups are favorable in intimate documentary style shots where the background is blurred, and your subject is the clear focus. The close-up is also often used to show specific action, like a drop of water dropping on a leaf or a hand picking up a knife. The close-up shot may be the most imperative shot on this list as it sets the rudiments of film. We will practice close-ups a lot when we create our 5-shot sequence. When taking a close-up of the face, it is important to have the eyes in sharp focus. A visual representation of this shot is visible in the film, “Harry Potter” where his face is focused and is frowning on screen.

 

 

 

The third shot is a medium shot, a very basic shot. The medium shot is analogous to typical photographs as a subject is captured from around the knees or waist to the top of the head. The entire body is not visible but is focused closely enough to show the location and the body of the subject. Aspects of the backgrounds are permitted to be shown in the photograph. This type of shot is mainly used to display a mixture of a character’s facial expressions and body language. The shots have a significantly wider view than the previous two shots and such characteristics make it feel natural to the audience, just as if they were there talking to the character. A visible representation is available in the movie “Ironman”, where Tony Stark shows off his newly developed Jericho missiles at test in the background.

 

 

The fourth shot is an OTS. The shot is a tight shot with the size of it being in the middle of an MS and CU. An over the shoulder shot is used to show a physical association between another persona and our subject. In literal terms, the shot looks as if you are looking over another subject over the main subject’s soldiers. The shot is positioned next to the main subject’s shoulders and viewing the world as if we were standing with or right next to them. This shot gives a physical awareness of an individual and an item or person. A visible representation is available in the movie “Spiderman – Homecoming”, where Peter Parker asks a criminal for some valuable information in a parking lot.

 

 

 

 

 

My Story

Part 1:

I will film myself shooting a basketball in the gym.I will try to use the 5 shot sequence and voiceover(me explaining how to shoot the ball) to intensify the emotional impact and to make it intriguing to watch. I hope to explore feelings, ideas, and emotions of people being informed on how to shoot a basketball.

 

Part 2:

Location: I will film my 5-shot sequence at any Gym available.

 

  • ECU of Hands
    • I will film my hands gripping the ball and positioning my fingers on the seams of the ball. I will make sure my hands on the ball are in focus and will keep the background such as the gym floor, clothing, and shoes out of focus. I will film this in an angle of the lens facing downward toward the floor.
      • I will use an aperture of 2.8
      • I will use a 42.5mm lens
      • I will start with a white balance of 5600k and control it later on to get the best shot (Final white balance used = )
  • CU of face
    • For the second shot, I will film my face looking up to the hoop from angle facing downward to my face . The camera will face the opposite direction of the hoop and will be filming me facing down at a high height so the yellow textures of the gym background may be slightly visible on the sides.
    • I will make sure that my eyes and face looking up to the hoop to be focused
    • I should have a neutral expression when I am shooting this shot
      • I will use an aperture of 2.8
      • I will use a 42.5mm lens
      • I will start with a white balance of 5600k and control it later on to get the best shot (Final white balance used = )
  • Third Shot
    • For the third shot, I will show myself bending my knees and putting the ball up to my head as a preparation of my full shooting motion. My body and some of the gym background will be in focus. The shot will have a side view of my body to make it look more interesting and to easily show my knees bending. There will be more movement of my body of than previous shots.
      • I will use an aperture of 8
      • I will use a 25mm lens
      • I will start with a white balance of 5600k and control it later on to get the best shot (Final white balance used = )

 

  •  For the OTS(fourth) shot,  I will record myself releasing the ball from my hands and shooting the ball to the basket. My arms and the ball will be in focus as they move toward the hoop. Only the upper part of my body including my head, right shoulder, and arm will be visible.
    • I will use an aperture of 8
    • I will use a 25mm lens
    • I will start with a white balance of 5600k and control it later on to get the best shot (Final white balance used = )
  • The fifth shot will be the camera recording the ball going inside the hoop from slighly underneath and side of the net. The hoop and backboard are going to be in focus as the ball moves inside the basket. None of my body will be visible in this shot
    • The camera angle that I will be using is the camera pointing toward the basketball net from right underneath the hoop
    • I will use an aperture of 8
    • I will use a 25mm lens
    • I will use a white balance of 3200k
    • I will start with a white balance of 5600k and control it later on to get the best shot (Final white balance used = )

Storyboard

 

 

Script

 

  1. When shooting a basketball, the gripping of the ball is crucial. I will place my index and middle finger in the middle of the ball and place them on the seams of the ball to maximize grip. To ensure that the ball does not slip of my hands when shooting, I will need a guiding hand on the side of the ball.
  2. It would be beneficial to see where to basket is before shooting the ball because that is how you would be able see where you are aiming for
  3. As the next step of shooting, at the same time, you have to bend your knees and put the ball up to your head.  .
  4. Next, release the ball from your hands as you jump.
  5. If you perform these actions in a well-structured order, the ball would go inside the basket.

 

  1. The Horror Genre

 

           

Horror is a film genre that’s scary for entertainment. Horror moves leave the viewers with a sense of dread and a rush of adrenaline. There are many types of horror, from psychological to Gore, that filmmakers use to craft great horror films. It has to describe a specific moment where a conflict has to be resolved, and there’s a dilemma at stake and the choice that the protagonist has to make. A strive, deadline, or a ticking clock may have tension to the short film. You also need to have a protagonist with a specific goal and an obstacle/antagonist impeding him/her. 

 

In a horror film, there has to be more action than dialogue. This would mean that there would be very little or no words being spoken and that the film would have to show the audience what is happening visually. There is also mounting suspense in horror films where there is pacing in the story and the actions to surprise viewers. There are also jump scares, sudden loud noises, or unexpected images that make viewers jump out of shock and fear. Gore is another characteristic of the film that shows gruesome death or torture with blood and guts that unsettle the audience. Another feature is a villain or a monster, who are the antagonists of the story. They are the film’s bad guys, and the audience needs to know what drives the antagonist and what they are capable of. The atmosphere is essential in cinema; it controls the mood and emotions of a scene. Suspense has to be visible for the audience to anticipate what might happen. Tension is needed for suspense to give the feeling of what might happen. High tension allows the audience to focus on the film. Proximity is an element where a threat is approaching the hero.

 

Another aspect of a horror film is that the audience has to connect with the emotions of the character, especially when they are in a dreadful circumstance with high tensions. There is another element of fear of the unknown. This uses human psychology, where unknown objects cause anxiety and panic attacks. When the outcome of a situation is not visible in the film, the audience feels like they have no control over what happens next and gives a substantial amount of dread as chaos develops in their minds. Horror films like to use dark environments where almost nothing is visible with the combination of jump scares. With this concept, the filmmakers create surprise and tension by providing bits and storyline pieces to find. Another key element is emotions. Emotions allow the audience to focus on the film where the unknown grabs their attention, while fear causes the audience to struggle through an increase in heart rates psychologically, shaking hands, potential paralysis, and more. Good horror films allow the emotions to feel real to the audience as if they were the protagonist experiencing the same dreadful situation on the screen. This job is done through creating extremes of emotions where there are moments of pure and utter fear and moments of stillness for the audience to catch their breath. The storyline is crucial in horror stories, but it is best to jump straight into the story from “situation” as soon as possible. In a good horror film, there has to be an excellent killer ending. Horror movies don’t always have a happy ending but may have deeply gloomy and fearful endings that still leave the audience with fear after getting up from their seats and leaving the theater. To have a good storyline, you need a memorable but frightening menace as this will remark the audience what they have to be fearful about. You also need a clear set of rules for the characters to stay logical enough and guide the audience to tell them when to scream and when to sigh with relief. Making things unexpected and adding an element of surprise is good to have in horror films as well. The atmosphere is censorious in horror films. The most typical atmospheric environments preferred by filmmakers are dim lighting, wide corridors, and flutter curtains that play a role in potential scare adventure, creaking floorboards, and more. Within the antagonists, there has to be a trademark. For example, Michal Myers’ trademark is his kitchen knife as he uses them to kill. This would make the antagonist more iconic and allow the audience to remember it better. Properly themed music is another horror film element because they add more tension and emotion to the film. Screams tend to sound good when they are in tune with a villain’s arrival song. There also has to be an appropriate amount of action in the film. There could be doors slamming, floorboards breaking, fighting in a corridor with blood, running desperately from the killer, and more.

 

There are around eight horror subgenres in film. The first genre is Psychological horror. There is a strong reliance on mental and emotional fear in these types of films rather than violence or antagonists. It will mainly focus on the characters’ states of mind throughout the story. An example of this genre can be “The Shining,” “The Silence of the Lambs,” and “Psycho.” The second genre is a Slasher. These films concentrate o serial killers like Michal Myers or Freddy Krueger. An example of these films is “Halloween,” “A Nightmare on Elm Street,” “Friday the 14th”, and “Texas Chainsaw Massacre.” The third subgenre is Gore. These films are also called splatter films and mainly display the human body’s vulnerability as it often shows frequent closeups. Two examples of a gore film are “Evil Dead” and Saw.” The next subgenre is body horror. It is closely associated with Gore but may feature more scenes of the human body that has been severely damaged and manipulated viciously. Famous body horror films are “The Fly,” “The Thing,” and “The Exorcist.” The following subgenre is Found footage. This is a horror genre in which the film is displayed as “discovered by the filmmakers rather than produced by them. An example of this could be the main characters finding footage of an unknown evil and an old video recorder with the footage. Some films with this genre are “The Blair Witch Project” and “Cloverfield.” Next, monster horror is a prominent genre among horror films where fear of the unknown (frightening monsters from science fiction and dark fantasy) are shown to create fear. Werewolves, vampires, aliens are portrayed as the major antagonists of this genre. Zombies have recently been a popular choice as an antagonist among filmmakers. Some examples of this genre could be “Night of the Living Dead” and “Alien.” The next genre is paranormal horror. It is analogous to monster horror but focuses more on supernatural entities such as ghosts, spirits, and demons. These types of films typically display haunted houses, possession, exorcism, or occult worship. Some movies with this genre are “The Conjuring” and “The Exorcist.” The next type of genre is Comedy Horror, an unusual genre where it allows the audience to fear and laugh at the same time. An example of this could be “Scream.”

 

 

Sound is another key aspect of the horror film. A persistent low hum makes the creaking stairs and hushed whispers more unsettling. To accentuate tension, composers and filmmakers often include sounds that disrupt viewers’ psychological state. These are identified as “non-linear” sounds. An example of this could be Alfred Hitchcock’s classic “Psycho,” where there are shrill, piercing strings, victims’ screams, and the slashing of the killer’s knife. According to a study by the University of California, infrasounds are low frequency sounds below 20Hx that can e produced by natural disasters and severe weather conditions. Humans are conditioned to relate these sounds with imminent danger due to the human anatomy and the way human brains are evolutionarily wired. Therefore, when these sounds are integrated, they will perform an immaculate role of aggravating the viewers’ feelings of disorientation. Electronic instruments are also popular tools for haunting scores and daunting atmospheric sound effects. Instruments like Synthesizers have an extraordinary mixture of natural and artificial sounds with the disturbing horror scenes. However, all the sound effects are the most effective when they match audience expectations and the scene’s tone. For instance, a sudden slam of a door from behind or faint children’s laughter in a haunted house is great methods for unnerving. The sound shouldn’t just exist as secondary components in a scene but add texture to the film’s artistry. Keeping these tricks in mind, filmmakers can harness sound as a powerful tool to create chilling movies that sustain suspense and incite terror. Some sounds are used for the characterization of protagonists and antagonists in the film. For example, Friday the 13th has a vocal noise of “ki ki ki ma ma ma,” signifying Jason Voorhees lurking nearby with his machete, even when not on screen.

 

 

Lighting is another important feature of horror films. The first type of lighting is low-key lighting. Here, lights create shadows and a dim hue. Lighting from below OR Uplighting is a long-standing practice in horror cinematography that heavily distorts the human face creating shadows around the eyes and other facial features. This early appearance creates an instinctive alarm like how you become scared when someone shines a flashlight underneath them when they are. Light from below is uncanny and unnatural because it doesn’t occur in a typical world. However, the fear comes from a deeper symbolism of light coming from the depths of hell. Light from above creates the allusion of heavenly light. Actors from the light above tend to appear as luminescent, natural, and angelic as if they were bathing in a beam of celestial light. Studies have shown that the human brain is hardwired to recognize faces for a scientific explanation, and when light shines from below, the faces look distorted, and we become disturbed. Other lighting types are silhouette, spotlighting, underexposure, harsh light, shadows, and hooting through objects. The silhouette technique is created when a light source is placed behind your object, with little to no light in front of your subject. For this shot, you have to turn off any strobes or flashes on your camera and get away from any other light source that may interfere with your silhouette shot. In horror films, this type of lighting is used to show a creepy figure approaching without revealing what the figure is. Such effects will drive fear within the audience. A prime example of this can be seen in “The Exorcist.” Lighting from high above can be used to show a mysterious environment in a dark place. The light will come from the screen’s high and back, which will generate multiple shadows and silhouettes that drive dread. Using smoke/mist/fog/haze may emphasize the mysterious connotations. The next lighting is spotlighting. You may use a cone or a flashlight to focus your light in a tiny area. In a dark environment, you would point your light from a little angle to the mouth of your subject. Try only to illuminate his mouth and keep the rest of the face in the shadow and background in the dark. The next type of lighting is showing a crack in a door where there is a strip of light being shown on the screen in a dark environment. In this type of lighting, you will have hard shadows and have only one part illuminated. This creates a feeling that someone is watching you or trying to sneak up to you in a mysterious place. The next type of lighting is POV flashlight lighting, where someone holds a flashlight to look for something in a dark environment. The camera is steady, but the flashlight is shaking, which shows that the protagonist is in panic. It also doesn’t allow the audience to have enough time to scan the environment, leaving them wondered if they saw something or not. Such technique engages the audience to be focused on the film. Underexposure is a type of shot with lighting where the photograph may be considered too dark. This simple lighting technique makes the background spookier and darker. The next is shooting through objects to create a special effect. The idea of shooting through objects is to have an out of focus foreground and be able to shoot through it, but at the same time keeping the subject sharp. This is most successful when placing the object close to the lens, either holding it by hand or resting it against the lens. Placing the foreground object farther away from the actual subject and closer to the front of the lens will make it easier to blur. This could be used to have a POV shot of a frightened person looking through a mysterious place. There is also another technique called obscuring through lighting. This technique conceals the object on the screen, so you cannot see all of it. Your eyes will be searching around and thinking what is missing the screen and what scary creature is there. All of these techniques provoke a mood an obscured exaggerated threat, crafting the horror atmosphere.

 

Continuing, camera angles are an element of a horror film that will control the scheme. The first type of shot that may be used is a “bird-eye/high angle.” This shot makes it seem like the player is being looked down on and seem completely powerless and vulnerable. The next is a closeup, and here the shot shows the emotions from the characters and captures detail in an important scene. Another that is effective in horror films is the tracking or panning shot. This shot connotes movement and describes a scene where a character is being followed/watched in full view. As the camera is constantly moving, it can build suspense as you don’t know what could be shown next. The Reverse shows the consequences of actions and what would happen if you went back in time. It also displays a character undergoing acknowledgment, and the suspense is built up. They are excellent for flashbacks. Moving on, the Tilted angle adds dramatic tension to shots and could signify a supernatural being. It is a good way to get a different shot of an incident across to the audience. The Extreme long shot or Long shot could be used to show the place and environment the film is taking place in full view. Low angles are powerful to accentuate a villain’s scariness as it precipitates the audience and actors in the film to feel weak and insignificant. The Handheld camera shot is used in horror films to add a sense of reality. It makes the audience feel involved and makes them feel like they are present in the film. Moreover, the POV shot shows the perspective through the hero’s eyes. This attaches the audience emotionally to the film. The OTS shot is the best shot to build tension. It is commonly used around mirrors and reflections so the audience can see what it feels like to be a figure stalking a victim. Then, there is the Dark Voyeur, a perspective and a framing device used to imply a character being watched or hunted by a malevolent other. It usually includes shooting through branches, darkened closets, or window curtains. Finally, there is the master shot. This is a shot of the complete scene from start to finish, including all the characters before the closeups and other angles.

 

 

Finally, editing is what composes the entire film together and musters the elements mentioned above. While editing, it is best to hold on to a shot without cutting away as it builds suspense and tension. Fast cuts create turmoil and unease, so it is recommended to have appropriately lasting shots. The sound effects have to match the scenes and the timing that they are being played.

 

  1. Horror in Context

 

There has been a congregation of focus changes in horror films throughout times due to cultural and historical settings. Some of the most prominent examples of this occurrence could be. However, not all cultures find the same things frightening.

 

Historical aspects have a major influence on the scheme of horror films. According to, Vox, most of the horror films during 2016 focused on racist extremism, power-mad gun rights advocacy, conspiracy-driven survivalism, xenophobic nationalism, and religious zealotry. Starting with President Trump’s election of the USA president, there has been a cultural shift toward extremist right-wing ideologies. A prime example of this could be from “Green Room,” which showed a young rock band against a neo-Nazi stronghold in the rural Pacific Northwest. “The Wailing” dealt unambiguously with xenophobia and the polarization of cultural views. On the other hand, the 1930’s USA’s horror films had more elements of fantastical creations taking place in exotic places with supernatural creatures from the classic 19th-century literature and folklore. As the US stock market crashed and precipitated an economic depression, unemployment rates became staggeringly high. The creation o entertaining horror movies was due to the bleak state of the country and economy in which people looked for entertainment to alleviate mental and physical hardship. In the 1950s-1960s, in the cold war, many horror movies were based on the paranoia of nuclear attack and space invaders (many UFO sightings occurred at that time). During the 2000s, after the brutal 9/11 attack, fears of terrorists and the middle east rose among the American citizens. This led to the creation of horror films based on terrorism and torture of the terrorists.

 

To view how different cultural backgrounds affect the type of horror movies that become created, I will be comparing Spanish horror films with Chinese horror films as the two are located in distinct regions of the world. Chinese films tend to focus more on psychopathic serial killers and paranormal activity, while Spanish movies tend to focus more on disfigured people and creatures with a mix of scenes from tombs. This shows that different cultures create different horror films as their audiences have different sentiments toward dread-giving aspects. My cultural background (Korean) has influenced my view of the horror genre so that I fear specific things more than others. For example, since Korean horror films tend to focus a lot on haunted places and paranormal activities, I tend to fear those features the most in horror movies.

 

Part 3 (Inspiration for my film):

 

The fears that I would explore and include in my short horror film would probably fear coming from an unknown stalky figure in the dark, stalking and slowly approaching the hero as they walk around hallways. When the hero turns around to check what’s behind as he/she feels like he/she is being followed, the mysterious stalker will become invisible from behind. Using footsteps of the unknown figure getting louder and louder and faster as it approaches the main character to harm him/her, I will make the audience concentrate and watch in high-tension. This part is where proximity, tension, suspense, and The Dark Voyeur is visible, in which the protagonists are seen as vulnerable. Potential environments I may use at school are dark hallways with many rooms and cabinets with little light. Possible camera angles I may use along with my lighting are the OTS, dark voyeur, bird eye shot, but I am open to all types. I might use horror music that I may find on the internet designed for haunted places to drive fear among the audience. I will edit in ways so that it doesn’t disorient or confuse my audience.

 

 

All of these techniques mentioned will ensure my strong dreadful emotional impact from my film to the audience.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Citations:

 

https://www.masterclass.com/articles/horror-movie-guide#what-are-the-characteristics-of-horror-films

https://medium.com/the-brave-writer/how-to-write-a-great-horror-story-21b7a351ba30

https://www.amctheatres.com/amc-scene/10-elements-every-horror-film-needs

https://blog.kadenze.com/creative-technology/whats-that-noise-devising-sound-elements-in-horror-movies/

https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/how-the-hidden-sounds-of-horror-movie-soundtracks-freak-you-out#:~:text=One%20unsettling%20and%20hidden%20%E2%80%9Csound,hear%20sound%20at%2020%20Hz.

http://naomimore.weebly.com/horror-lighting–camera-work.html

https://nofilmschool.com/2016/10/8-spooky-lighting-techniques-you-can-use-your-horror-film

https://www.slideshare.net/billiewilson_/camera-shots-and-angles-for-a-horror-and-thriller-film

https://freakproductions.net/a-guide-to-the-camera-angles-and-cinematography-in-horror-movies/

https://www.videomaker.com/article/c3/17056-when-editing-a-horror-movie-or-thriller-timing-is-key

https://nofilmschool.com/2017/10/5-horror-lighting-setups-you-can-do-one-light

https://digital-photography-school.com/tips-for-shooting-through-objects-to-create-a-special-effect/

https://www.vox.com/culture/2016/12/21/13737476/horror-movies-2016-invasion

https://bloody-disgusting.com/editorials/20853/100-years-of-horror-culture-shock-the-influence-of-history-on-horror/

https://screenrant.com/chinese-horror-movies-scary-terrifying/

https://www.preview.ph/culture/best-korean-horror-movies-a00268-20200928

https://www.vulture.com/article/spanish-horror-movies-you-should-watch.html

 

5 shots:

 

Link to film. – https://dx.isb.bj.edu.cn/dash/#/story/194821

 

 

Beat:

 

Working as a team:

Recording the Audio

As our team consisted of 4 people, we divided our roles into two groups. One for the test shots and one for the audio of the film. Billy and I were in charge of the audio. For the last few classes, we recorded the following audios that we could potentially use after analyzing the beat sheets. We used equipment such as..After every class

  • Notification Sound
  • Phone Ringing
  • Light Switch Turning on and off
  • Someone screaming and crying out for help
  • Loud fan noise
  • Book/Ping Pong ball dropping from behind
  • Metal banging
  • Beep sound (power button)

Sound Trac

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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