Causes, practices and effects of war

War was a major feature of the 20th century. In this topic the different types of war should be identified, and the causes, practices and effects of these conflicts should be studied.

Major themes

Different types and nature of 20th century warfare

  • Civil

  • Guerrilla

  • Limited war, total war

Origins and causes of wars

  • Long-term, short-term and immediate causes

  • Economic, ideological, political, religious causes

Nature of 20th century wars

  • Technological developments, tactics and strategies, air, land and sea

  • Home front: economic and social impact (including changes in the role and status of women)

  • Resistance and revolutionary movements

Effects and results of wars

  • Peace settlements and wars ending without treaties

  • Attempts at collective security pre- and post-Second World War

  • Political repercussions and territorial changes

  • Post-war economic problems

Material for detailed study

  • First World War (19148)
  • Second World War (193945)
  • Africa: Algerian War (195462), Nigerian Civil War (196770)
  • Americas: Falklands/Malvinas war (1982), Nicaraguan Revolution (19769)
  • Asia and Oceania: Indo-Pakistan wars (19479, 1965, 1971), Chinese Civil War (192737 and 19469)
  • Europe and Middle East: Spanish Civil War (19369), Iran–Iraq war (198088), Gulf War (1991)